Oh, an egg crisis now?! Maybe it’s because chicken egg yolk antibodies neutralize certain bioweapons

Just a “maybe”. it’s not definitive until it’s on TV, two-three years from now, right?

“Various spike protein mutants” is an euphemism for the spikes generated by the vaccines, that’s all I need to add.

Chicken Egg Yolk Antibodies (IgYs) block the binding of multiple SARS-CoV-2 spike protein variants to human ACE2

Shuangshi Wei 1Shengbao Duan 2Xiaomei Liu 1Hongmei Wang 1Shaohua Ding 1Yezhou Chen 1Jinsong Xie 1Jingjing Tian 1Nong Yu 3Pingju Ge 4Xinglin Zhang 4Xiaohong Chen 4Yong Li 5Qinglin Meng 6


The SARS-CoV-2 virus is still spreading worldwide, and there is an urgent need to effectively prevent and control this pandemic. This study evaluated the potential efficacy of Egg Yolk Antibodies (IgY) as a neutralizing agent against the SARS-CoV-2. We investigated the neutralizing effect of anti-spike-S1 IgYs on the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus, as well as its inhibitory effect on the binding of the coronavirus spike protein mutants to human ACE2. Our results show that the anti-Spike-S1 IgYs showed significant neutralizing potency against SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus, various spike protein mutants, and even SARS-CoV in vitro. It might be a feasible tool for the prevention and control of ongoing COVID-19.

Keywords: Chicken Egg Yolk Antibodies; IgY; Neutralizing agent; SARS-CoV-2; Spike protein variants.

Immunoglobulin yolk targeting spike 1, receptor binding domain of spike glycoprotein and nucleocapsid of SARS-CoV-2 blocking RBD-ACE2 binding interaction

Meliana Eka Saputri 1Siti Aisyah Rahmalia Effendi 2Rifa Nadila 2Syauqi Azzam Fajar 2Retno Damajanti Soejoedono 3Ekowati Handharyani 4Okti Nadia Poetri 5


Coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has become a global pandemic disease that has social and economic chaos. An alternative mitigation strategy may involve the use of specific immunoglobulin (Ig)-Y derived from chicken eggs. Our study aimed to evaluate the neutralizing potential of specific IgY targeting S1, receptor-binding-domain (RBD) of spike glycoprotein and nucleocapsid (N) of SARS-CoV-2 to inhibit RBD and angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2 (ACE2) binding interaction. Hy-Line Brown laying hens were immunized with recombinant S1, RBD spike glycoprotein, and nucleocapsid (N) of SARS-CoV-2. The presence of specific S1,RBD,N-IgY in serum and egg yolk was verified by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Specific S1,RBD,N-IgY was purified and characterized from egg yolk using sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and was subsequently evaluated for inhibition of the RBD-ACE2 binding interaction in vitro. Specific IgY was present in serum at 1 week post-initial immunization (p.i.i), whereas its present in egg yolk was confirmed at 4 weeks p.i.i. Specific S1,RBD,N-IgY in serum was able to inhibit RBD-ACE2 binding interaction between 4 and 15 weeks p.i.i. The results of the SDS-PAGE revealed the presence of bands with molecular weights of 180 kDa, indicating the presence of whole IgY. Our results demonstrated that S1,RBD,N-IgY was able to inhibit RBD-ACE2 binding interaction in vitro, suggesting its potential use in blocking virus entry. Our study also demonstrated proof-of-concept that laying hens were able to produce this specific IgY, which could block the viral binding and large production of this specific IgY is feasible.

Egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) targeting SARS-CoV-2 S1 as potential virus entry blocker

Lirong Bao 1Cheng Zhang 1Jinglu Lyu 1Ping Yi 1 2Xin Shen 1Boyu Tang 1Hang Zhao 1Biao Ren 1Yu Kuang 3Linlin Zhou 3Yan Li 1


Aims: COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has become a public health crisis worldwide. In this study, we aimed at demonstrating the neutralizing potential of the IgY produced after immunizing chicken with a recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 subunit.

Methods and results: E. coli BL21 carrying plasmid pET28a-S1 was induced with IPTG for the expression of SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein. The recombinant His-tagged S1 was purified and verified by SDS-PAGE, Western blot and biolayer interferometry (BLI) assay. Then S1 protein emulsified with Freund’s adjuvant was used to immunize layer chickens. Specific IgY against S1 (S1-IgY) produced from egg yolks of these chickens exhibited a high titer (1:25,600) and a strong binding affinity to S1 (KD = 318 nmol L-1 ). The neutralizing ability of S1-IgY was quantified by a SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped virus-based neutralization assay with an IC50 value of 0.99 mg ml-1 . In addition, S1-IgY exhibited a strong ability in blocking the binding of SARS-CoV-2 S1 to hACE2, and it could partially compete with hACE2 for the binding sites on S1 by BLI assays.

Conclusions: We demonstrated here that after immunization of chickens with our recombinant S1 protein, IgY neutralizing antibodies were generated against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 subunit; therefore, showing the potential use of IgY to block the entry of this virus.

Significance and impact of the study: IgY targeting S1 subunit of SARS-CoV-2 could be a promising candidate for pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis or treatment of COVID-19. Administration of IgY-based oral preparation, oral or nasal spray may have profound implications for blocking SARS-CoV-2.

Egg-Derived Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) With Broad Variant Activity as Intranasal Prophylaxis Against COVID-19

Lyn R Frumkin 1Michaela Lucas 2Curtis L Scribner 3Nastassja Ortega-Heinly 4Jayden Rogers 5Gang Yin 6Trevor J Hallam 6Alice Yam 6Kristin Bedard 6Rebecca Begley 1Courtney A Cohen 7 8Catherine V Badger 7Shawn A Abbasi 7John M Dye 7Brian McMillan 9Michael Wallach 10 11Traci L Bricker 12Astha Joshi 12Adrianus C M Boon 12Suman Pokhrel 13Benjamin R Kraemer 13Lucia Lee 13Stephen Kargotich 14Mahima Agochiya 1Tom St John 1Daria Mochly-Rosen 1 13 14


COVID-19 emergency use authorizations and approvals for vaccines were achieved in record time. However, there remains a need to develop additional safe, effective, easy-to-produce, and inexpensive prevention to reduce the risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection. This need is due to difficulties in vaccine manufacturing and distribution, vaccine hesitancy, and, critically, the increased prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 variants with greater contagiousness or reduced sensitivity to immunity. Antibodies from eggs of hens (immunoglobulin Y; IgY) that were administered the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were developed for use as nasal drops to capture the virus on the nasal mucosa. Although initially raised against the 2019 novel coronavirus index strain (2019-nCoV), these anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgY surprisingly had indistinguishable enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay binding against variants of concern that have emerged, including Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Omicron (B.1.1.529). This is different from sera of immunized or convalescent patients. Culture neutralization titers against available Alpha, Beta, and Delta were also indistinguishable from the index SARS-CoV-2 strain. Efforts to develop these IgY for clinical use demonstrated that the intranasal anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgY preparation showed no binding (cross-reactivity) to a variety of human tissues and had an excellent safety profile in rats following 28-day intranasal delivery of the formulated IgY. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase 1 study evaluating single-ascending and multiple doses of anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgY administered intranasally for 14 days in 48 healthy adults also demonstrated an excellent safety and tolerability profile, and no evidence of systemic absorption. As these antiviral IgY have broad selectivity against many variants of concern, are fast to produce, and are a low-cost product, their use as prophylaxis to reduce SARS-CoV-2 viral transmission warrants further evaluation.

Clinical trial registration:  https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04567810, identifier NCT04567810.

I found more science backing this, but sufficiency is underrated in our society, I’d like to set a good example.

To be continued?
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! Articles can always be subject of later editing as a way of perfecting them