UPDATE: OUR MAIN CHANNEL JUST GOT DELETED FROM YOUTUBE FOR EXPOSING THESE HISTORICAL FACTS
Chinese communism has one main thing in common with the Bolshevik one: both were installed and supervised by Jews for the most part, with some historical intermittences that were promptly fixed.
In fact, most wars, revolutions, health crisis, climate crisis, lead to bigger debts to the Jewish banking oligarchy centered around The Rothschilds / IMF / WB.
|Israel Epstein, second from right in front, standing in front of Mao. He later became the minister of appropriations, an extremely powerful position in a practically cashless era. To the right of him is another Jew, also under cover as a journalist|
Epstein‘s cover was journalism. His parents were Russian Jews who were imprisoned in Siberia for espionage.
This is Israel Epstein chatting with Chairman Hu, just before his death.
Mao in a high-level meeting with several Jews [Frank Coe, Israel Epstein,
Elsie Fairfax-Cholmely, and Solomon Adler]
Mao with Sidney Rittenberg. Wikipedia claims he “observed” the upper levels of Chinese leadership:
Sidney Rittenberg (August 14, 1921; Chinese name: Lǐ Dūnbái 李敦白) is an American interpreter and scholar who lived in China from 1944 to 1979. He worked closely with People’s Republic of China (PRC) founder Mao Zedong, military leader Zhu De, statesman Zhou Enlai, and other leaders of the Communist party during the war, and was with these central Communist leaders at Yan’an. He witnessed first-hand much of what occurred at upper levels of the CCP and knew many of its leaders personally. He was the first American citizen to join the Chinese Communist Party (CCP).
Sidney Rittenberg WPP group and Martin Sorrell
Rittenberg’s connections and experience have enabled him to run a successful consultancy business representing some of the world’s biggest brands, such as Intel, Levi Strauss, Microsoft, Hughes Aircraft and Teledesic.
1. Foreign nationals are not allowed to be naturalized as Chinese citizens. How did these Jews magically do it?
2. Rittenberg’s “consultancy business” is in fact one of the largest, or largest, advertising agencies in the world. Was he the actual Chinese minister of propaganda?
A note about Mao: He was picked up to play puppet leader with resourced funneled through Yale University (whose symbol has Hebrew on it), in a Skull and Bones type scheme. The location was Yali Highschool in Changsha, Hunan Province – a branch of Yale. Mao was a disturbed young man – a completely controllable, blackmailable puppet for their purposes.
“Rewi Alley,” the man who organized communes in China before Chinese even knew they were to be ruled by Jewish communists (in the 1920’s, well before 1949)
A closer look at Rewi Alley
Rewi schmoozing with the supposedly ultra-powerful Zhou Enlai
Robert Lawrence Kuhn , another Jewish investment banker “consultant” to the CCP
Robert Lawrence Kuhn seen talking about who the new Chinese president will be, while Chinese have no clue about it
Sidney Shapiro, Israel Epstein and Chen Bidi getting a birthday party thrown by the politburo
From a Chinese article on the Jewish birthday party:
Three CPPCC [politburo] members with foreign origins celebrated their 90th birthday together at Jingfeng Hotel, one of the hotels in Beijing appointed for the NPC and CPPCC sessions, on March 8. Israel Epstein, Sidney Shapiro (Sha Boli) and Chen Bidi were born in Poland, the United States and Canada respectively, and they obtained Chinese nationality in 1957 and 1963. As experts who have long been working in the field of foreign publicity, they witnessed China’s revolution and socialist modernization drive.
After retirement, they didn’t stay idle but continued to participate actively in the discussion and management of state affairs. Many NPC deputies and CPPCC members attending the ongoing annual sessions went to their birthday party to express their best wishes.
Sidney Shapiro, politburo member (!). Chinese are allowed to call them foreigners (laowai), but they dare not mention that all of them are Jews
Virginius Frank Coe, Jewish operative in China. From Wikipedia: Blacklisted…Coe sought work abroad, eventually finding…the People’s Republic of China, where he joined a circle of expatriates working with the government. In 1962, he was joined by Solomon Adler in the circle. Coe participated in Mao’s Great Leap Forward, a plan for the rapid industrialization and modernization of China. His works include articles justifying the Rectification campaign.
Henry Kissinger: “I used to assign Mao’s writings to my classes at Harvard”
Israel Epstein, Prominent Chinese Communist, Dies at 90
By NEW YORK TIMES JUNE 2, 2005
Israel Epstein, a journalist, author and propagandist for China whose passion for Communism was fueled in long interviews with Mao in the 1940’s and was not dimmed by imprisonment during the Cultural Revolution, died last Thursday at a hospital in Beijing. He was 90.
His death was announced by the official New China News Agency.
Mr. Epstein edited China Today, an English-language Chinese newsmagazine, translated the sayings and writings of Mao and Deng Xiaoping and advised the Chinese government on how to polish its overseas image. He became a Chinese citizen, joined the Communist Party and served on official government and party committees.
He and perhaps a dozen other aging foreign-born residents of Beijing were sometimes seen as the last true believers in a revolution that has sometimes seemed blurred by time’s passage and China’s embrace of free markets and consumerism.
In 1996, The Observer, the London newspaper, said, “Perhaps the most loyal Communists in the country today are foreigners, veteran fellow travelers from a vanished era of idealism.”
Mr. Epstein hung Mao’s portrait on his bedroom wall; knew the American journalist Edgar Snow well enough to help edit his books; was a protégé of the widow of Sun Yat-sen, the founder of China’s first republic; and was able to say the five years he spent in prison on false charges during the Cultural Revolution had helped improve him by shrinking his ego. For decades China’s top leaders visited him on his birthdays.
“My basic ideas have not changed,” he told The Observer. “I see no reason to change them.”
Israel Epstein was born on April 20, 1915, in Warsaw, then under Russian control. His father was imprisoned by the czarist authorities for leading a labor uprising, and his mother was once exiled to Siberia.
“The earliest influence on me came from my socialist parents,” Mr. Epstein said in an interview with China Daily in 2003.
After the outbreak of World War I, his father was sent by his company to Japan to develop business in the Pacific region. As the German Army approached Warsaw, his mother, with him in her arms, fled the city and traveled east to be reunited with her husband. After experiencing anti-Jewish sentiment in several places, they settled in Tianjin in north China. He was then 2.
Mr. Epstein began his career as a journalist at 15, working for the Tianjin-based Peking and Tientsin Times, an English-language newspaper. He covered China’s struggle against Japanese invaders for United Press and other Western news organizations.
In 1941, a short item in The New York Times reported that he had been killed, but it later turned out that he had faked his death to divert the Japanese who were hunting him. He anonymously submerged into a Japanese internment camp for a while.
Mr. Epstein became acquainted with Mr. Snow after his editor assigned him to review one of Mr. Snow’s books, and Mr. Snow showed him his classic “Red Star Over China” before it was published. Mr. Snow reciprocated by reading Mr. Epstein’s unpublished works.
In Hong Kong, Mr. Epstein worked with Soong Ching Ling, Sun Yat-sen’s widow, whom he had met in left-wing political activities in the 1930’s. She arranged for him to visit Mao, Zhou Enlai and their revolutionary comrades at their base in China’s northwest in 1944, and Mr. Epstein said his conversations in a cave with Mao had changed his life.
In 1944, Mr. Epstein visited Britain, then spent the next five years in the United States, where he published “The Unfinished Revolution in China” to good reviews. Other books he wrote were first published in Chinese and included “From Opium War to Liberation” in 1954, “Tibet Transformed” in 1983 and “Woman in World History: Soong Ching Ling” in 1993.
In 1951, Ms. Soong invited him to return to China to edit China Reconstructs, later renamed China Today. He was editor in chief until his retirement at 70, and then editor emeritus.
His five years in prison during the Cultural Revolution, on charges of plotting against Zhou, ended in 1973 with a personal apology from Zhou and a restoration of his exalted position.
His prominence in China was suggested by the annual talks Mao had with him. Deng attended Mr. Epstein’s retirement reception in 1985. On April 17, the Chinese president, Hu Jintao, visited him and praised his “special contributions” to China.
Mr. Epstein first wife, Elsie Fairfax-Cholmeley, died in 1984. He is survived by his wife, Wan Bi, two children and two stepchildren.
Correction: June 18, 2005, Saturday An obituary on June 2 about Israel Epstein, a Warsaw-born journalist who became a prominent Chinese Communist, referred incorrectly to his marriage to Elsie Fairfax-Cholmeley. She was his second wife; his first was Edith Bihovsky Epstein, later Ballin, from whom he was divorced in the early 1940’s.
SOROS A ROTHSCHILD FRONTMAN, FORGED IMF-CHINA ALLIANCE. WE’RE LIVING THE CONSEQUENCES
Sidney Rittenberg: The Jew Behind Communist China
Sidney Rittenberg died on August 24 of this year, ten days after his 98th birthday. He was probably the most famous American collaborator with the Chinese Communist regime of Mao Zedong (We are not counting Chinese government official, Israel Epstein, as American, although he had his book, The Unfinished Revolution in China, published during the crucial five years in which he lived in the United States). Like Epstein, Rittenberg got long obituaries in The New York Times and The Washington Post. They might not have been as glowing as Epstein’s, but they were far from being as negative as they might have been for this long-term leading turncoat and propagandist for the murderous Mao regime.
He will be buried at the Babaoshan Cemetery for Revolutionaries.
Although the Times seemed to treat him with some approval by headlining its obituary, “Sidney Rittenberg, Idealistic American Aide to Mao Who Evolved to Counsel Capitalists, Dies at 98,” from the perspective of any right-thinking anti-Communist, The Post’s article is much the worse of the two. One sentence in The Post’s obit says it all, “After Mao’s seizure of power in 1949 over the corrupt U.S.-backed Nationalist Party, which enjoyed little support among the population, Mr. Rittenberg was rewarded with appointments at Chinese news and propaganda agencies.”
John F. Kennedy would certainly have taken issue with The Post’s extremely simplistic, pro-Mao, if not to say, pro-Communist view of the loss of China. Alfred Kohlberg, an American businessman with many years of experience with China, would no doubt have said that The Post is just continuing to perpetuate the pro-Communist propaganda with which the American mainstream press was packed in the 1940s.
Soul Mate Rittenberg?
As surprising as it might seem in light of all the anti-Communist writing that I have done, I can easily identify with Rittenberg, although I make no excuses for his actions. We are both Carolinians and we both received some education at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. My time was spent there getting a Ph.D. in economics after service as an Army lieutenant. Rittenberg entered as a freshman and either attended only briefly before dropping out to become a labor organizer or graduated with a degree in philosophy, depending on whether you believe the Post or the Times obituary. The Times assertion seems to be more plausible, because Rittenberg got the sort of U.S. Army assignment, though a private and not a lieutenant, that would more likely go to a college graduate, as a language specialist, becoming fluent in Chinese and being sent by the Army to China at the close of World War II.
Oh, but Rittenberg was Jewish, you say, and a former member of the American Communist Party. On the latter point, I have certainly never been a Communist Party member, but I can attest to the truth of the old saying that if you’re not a socialist when you’re under thirty you have no heart, and if you are a socialist when you’re over thirty, you have no brain. Chapel Hill was certainly a place to feel right at home as a Leftist when I was there, and it was probably more so when Rittenberg was there at the tail end of the Great Depression. Consider the fact that when I was there the most powerful voices against the Vietnam War, which most of us despised, including virtually every fellow veteran that I encountered, were from the Jewish Left. We looked forward every two weeks to reading I.F. Stone’s newsletter, and Noam Chomsky’s anti-war treatises in the New York Review of Books seemed to be the most persuasive. The first verse of my poem, “A Chomsky Dissenter,” captures my attitude toward the man at the time, and well into the years that I taught economics in college:
In 1970, the very pro-Mao article, “Maoist Economic Development: The New Man in the New China,” by respected mainstream economist, John W. Gurley, was all the rage among us graduate students, even though it was weak in analysis and practically devoid of facts, an ideological screed dressed up in economic jargon which has aged very poorly. About the same time, I also read Jack Belden’s China Shakes the World, and was very favorably impressed, as I see many more recent readers are, too, even years after the horrors inflicted by Mao’s Great Leap Forward and Cultural Revolution—admittedly well after the period that Belden reported on—have become known. It’s not at all hard for me to put myself in the young Rittenberg’s shoes and being won over by Mao and his fellow revolutionaries. It’s not like Rittenberg deserted from the Army and went over to the enemy like my very misguided fellow rural Eastern North Carolinian, Charles Robert Jenkins, did in Korea in 1965. Rittenberg stayed in China after his Army tour was over, worked for a time in United Nations famine relief, and then joined up with Mao, becoming a propagandist for him.
But, again, there’s the matter of Rittenberg’s Jewishness. Wouldn’t that have set him apart from me? To the contrary, for a number of reasons; when I was of the same age as he was when he went over to the Reds, it would have probably made me identify with him even more closely. In the first place, the stereotype of white Southerners generally as prejudiced against Jews and non-whites is simply not true. There are lots of relatively broad-minded liberals in the South, and my family liked to count themselves among them. If there is any group of fellow whites that the average Southerner is likely to have some prejudice against, it is Roman Catholics, for doctrinal reasons. That’s because most Southerners are Protestants—Southern Baptists more than any other group, as my family was—and many of them descend directly from religious sects in Europe who were on the Protestant side of the Reformation, when people took those religious differences very seriously. Sunday school instruction in Southern Baptist churches is steeped in Old Testament stories. So was the child’s story Bible from which our second-grade public school teacher read to us regularly, and I imagine that she was hardly unusual as a small-town Southern elementary school teacher.
Although the fundamentalist evangelist Oliver B. Greene was ubiquitous on the radio in the South when I was growing up, I can’t say that he had any influence on me or anyone I knew, but his influence in the region had to have been substantial. Many times, I heard him offer as a “gift” to anyone sending him money a copy of the Scofield Bible. I have never seen a Scofield Bible, and I was well into middle age before I was to learn that it is an annotated work with a very strong Zionist slant.
Harry Golden’s 1955 book is entitled, Jewish Roots in the Carolinas: A Pattern of American Philo-Semitism. I have not read it, but from my own education and experience I can say that the average rural to small-town Southerner, at least at the time that I was growing up, was much more likely to have a positive rather than a negative attitude toward Jews. Most are unlikely to have known any Jews; I know I didn’t. When I thought of Jews, I thought mainly of those Old Testament characters. I didn’t even think of the numerous comedians I saw on television like Sid Caesar, Jack Benny, or Phil Silvers as Jews or of my beloved Mad magazine as a Jewish publication or the popular Tin Pan Alley music composers as Jews. If I had, it would have only made me more philo-Semitic. I think the only person that I ever laid eyes on in person whom I knew to be a Jew was that self-same Harry Golden from Charlotte, who wore his Jewishness on his sleeve. He actually came and gave a talk at our church one Sunday evening. I recall that he was an entertaining and likable-seeming fellow, although I don’t recall what he had to say. Only in researching this article did I learn that Golden was actually originally a New Yorker who ended up making his career in Charlotte, settling in the Southeast probably because he had been sent to the Federal Penitentiary down the road in Atlanta for five years for mail fraud when he was living in New York City. He was a popular celebrity, though, by the time that he was invited to speak at our church.
This is just an excerpt from Culture Wars Magazine, not the full article. To continue reading, purchase the November, 2019 edition of Culture Wars Magazine.
- Solomon Adler (August 6, 1909 — August 4, 1994)
- Aaron Raphael Belilios (1842-11 Jul 1898)
- Emanuel Raphael Belilios (14 November 1837 – 11 November 1905)
- Raphael Aaron Belilios (5 December 1873 – 19 June 1929)
- Werner Michael Blumenthal (born January 3, 1926)
- Mikhail Markovich Borodin (real name Mikhail Gruzenberg) (July 9, 1884 – May 29, 1951)
- Charles Henri Maurice Bosman (c.1839-1892)
- Frank Coe (Virginius Frank Coe) (1907–June 2, 1980)
- Morris Abraham Cohen (1887–1970)
- Lauchlin Currie (October 8, 1902 – December 23, 1993)
- Salem Shaloam David (1853−?)
- Israel Epstein (20 April 1915 – 26 May 2005)
- Edward Isaac Ezra (3 January 1883 – 15 December 1921)
- Nissim Elias Benjamin Ezra (1883–1936)
- Stanisław (Moishe) Flato (27 June 1910 – 1972)
- Richard Frey (11 February 1920 – died 16 November 2004)
- Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006)
- Amir Gal-Or (born 1962)
- Mark Gayn (21 April 1909–17 December 1981)
- Anatoli Ilyich Gekker (August 25, 1888 – July 1, 1937)
- Michael Greenberg (28 November 1914 – 19 April 1992)
- Gubbay, Gubbai, or Gabbay–Sassoon family
- Aaron Gabbai ( – 1888)
- David Gubbay
- Elijah Gabbai ( – 1892)
- Ezekiel Ben Joshua Gabbai (1824 – 1896)
- Ezekiel Ben Ṣālīḥ Gabbai (1812 – 1887)
- Raphael Ben Aaron Gabbai ( – 1923)
- Sasson Ben Ezekiel Mordecai Gabbai
- Shalom Gabbai
- Leo Hanin (born 20 November 1913)
- Silas Aaron Hardoon (1851–1931)
- Noel Jacobs (1898–1977)
- Adolph Abramovich Joffe (10 October 1883 – 16 November 1927)
- Kadoorie, Kaddouri, or Kadouri family
- Eleazer “Elly” Silas Kadoorie KBE (1867 – 2 August 1944)
- Ellis Kadoorie CBE (1865–1922)
- Horace Kadoorie, CBE (28 September 1902 – 22 April 1995)
- Lawrence Kadoorie, Baron Kadoorie, CBE (2 June 1899 – 25 August 1993)
- Michael David Kadoorie, GBS (born 1941)
- Shimon Sholom Kalish (1882–1954)
- Abraham Kaufman (November 22, 1885 – March 25, 1971)
- Henry Kissinger (May 27, 1923 – )
- Paul Komor (1886-1973)
- Ursula Kuczynski (15 May 1907, – 7 July 2000, Berlin, Germany, also known as Ruth Werner, Ursula Beurton and Ursula Hamburger)
- Robert Lawrence Kuhn (born 1944)
- Eliyahu Lankin (25 September 1914 – 10 August 1994)
- Yaacov (Yana) Liberman (born 1923)
- Genrikh Samoilovich Lyushkov (1900 – disappeared August 1945)
- Henry Morgenthau Jr. (May 11, 1891 – February 6, 1967)
- Silas Meyer Moses (Bombay Nov. 23, 1845)
- Matthew Nathan (3 January 1862 – 18 April 1939)
- Karl Friedrich Neumann (28 December 1793 – 17 March 1870)
- Alexander I. Pogrebetsky (1891-1952)
- Ludwik Witold Rajchman (1 November 1881 – 13 July 1965)
- Manya Reiss (1900–1962)
- David Reuben (born 1941)
- Simon Reuben (born 1944)
- Sidney Rittenberg (born August 14, 1921)
- Rene Rivkin (6 June 1944 – 1 May 2005)
- Tadeusz Romer (December 6, 1894 – March 23, 1978)
- Jakob Rosenfeld (January 11, 1903 – April 22, 1952),
- Rothschild Family
- Robert Rothschild (16 December 1911 – 3 December 1998)
- Jakob Rudnik (24 March 1894–13 March 1963)
- Eva Sandberg (November 8, 1911 – November 29, 2001)
- Sassoon, Sassoun, Sasson, or Sassun family
- Albert Abdallah David Sassoon, Bart
- David Sassoon
- David Sassoon Sassoon
- Edward Albert Sassoon, Bart
- Elias David Sassoon (27 March 1820 – 21 March 1880)
- Sir Edward Elias Sassoon, 2nd Baronet of Bombay (6 January 1853 – 2 December 1924)
- Ellice Victor Sassoon (20 December 1881 – 13 August 1961)
- Frederick David Sassoon (1 May 1853 – 4 May 1917)
- Jacob Elias Sassoon (1844 – 22 October 1916)
- Solomon David Sassoon
- Jacob Schiff (born Jakob Heinrich Schiff; January 10, 1847 – September 25, 1920)
- Sidney Shapiro (December 23, 1915 – October 18, 2014)
- Edward Shellim (circa 1869 – 7 December 1928)
- Hans Shippe
- Nathan Gregory Silvermaster (November 27, 1898 – October 7, 1964)
- Sir Marc Aurel Stein, KCIE, FRAS, FBA (26 November 1862 – 26 October 1943)
- Manfred Stern (also known as Emilio Kléber, Lazar Stern, Moishe Stern, Mark Zilbert) (1896–1954)
- John George Stoessinger (born October 14, 1927)
- Laurence Henry “Larry” Tribe(born October 10, 1941)
- Harry Triguboff (born 3 March 1933)
- Joseph Vladimirovich (Volfovich) Trumpeldor (November 21, 1880 – March 1, 1920)
- Grigori Naumovich Voitinsky, born Zarkhin (1893-1953)
- Yochanan Vollach (born May 14, 1945)
- Ruth Weissalso known as Wèi Lùshī (December 11, 1908 – March 6, 2006)
- Harry Dexter White (October 9, 1892 – August 16, 1948)
- Zhao Yingcheng (Moshe ben Abram; 1619–1657?)
- Zhao Yingdou, brother of Zhao Yingcheng, both held important government posts in the 1660s.
- Allan Zeman (born 1949)
Extended list, including Asian people of known Jewish ancestry
- Liz Cho (born December 19, 1970)
- Susan Choi (born 1969)
- Ho Fook (30 November 1863 – 29 August 1926)
- George Ho (3 November 1919 – 4 June 2014)
- Josephine “Josie” Ho Chiu-yi (born 26 December 1974
- Lawrence Ho (born 1976)
- Pansy Catalina Ho Chiu-king (born on 26 August 1962)
- Sabrina Ho Chiu Yeng (born September 24, 1990)
- Ho Sai-chuen (circa 1891 – 29 April 1938)
- Stanley Ho (born 25 November 1921)
- Robert Hotung (22 December 1862 – 26 April 1956)
- Jiang Wenli (born 1969)
- Michael Kogan (January 1, 1920 – February 5, 1984)
- Siegfried Komor (1863 – 1935)
- Moritz Montague Kuhn
- Hans Müller (Vice President of Beijing Medical University) (January 13, 1915 – December 4, 1994)
- Teodor Parnicki (1908-1988)
- Robert Jacob Alexander, Baron Skidelsky (born 25 April 1939)
- Solomon L. Skidelsky
- Song Dandan (born 25 August 1961)
- Gerald Tannebaum (likely) (1917 – 9 March 2001)
- Ignaz Trebitsch-Lincoln (4 April 1879 – 6 October 1943)
- George Zames (January 7, 1934 – August 10, 1997)
Ambiguous, unknown, or closely affiliated
- Rewi Alley (2 December 1897 – 27 December 1987)
- Hilaire du Berrier (1905 – October 12, 2002) (Married to Rosa Kadoorie)
- Norman Bethune (March 4, 1890 – November 12, 1939)
- Chiune Sugihara (1 January 1900 – 31 July 1986)
- Roderick Mackenzie Gray
- Ho Feng-Shan (September 10, 1901 – September 28, 1997)
- Seishirō Itagaki (21 January 1885 – 23 December 1948)
- Bruce Lee (possibly, see the “Hotung family” section of this article for details.)
- Tadeusz Romer (December 6, 1894 – March 23, 1978)
- Edgar Parks Snow (17 July 1905 – 15 February 1972)
- Richard Sorge (October 4, 1895 – November 7, 1944)
- Lothar von Trotha (3 July 1848 – 31 March 1920) (According to my extensive research this person was more Jewish than not. For now refer to the Wikipedia talk page [before the part where they try to confuse people and make people stop asking hard questions they don’t want people asking.] He will be discussed in more detail in a later article on Africa, along with Robert Rothschild, and many others not listed on this page. For now, please refer to all the other articles on this site for surrounding evidence.)
- Zhao Benshan (born 2 October 1957)
- groups, and communities
- Jews, Chinese ( Kaifeng Jews, et al)
- Jewish settlement in Imperial Japan
- Shanghai Ghetto community
- Silvermaster group
- Israel’s Messenger
- Japanese-Jewish common ancestry theory (resurgence of false propaganda, possibly to gain affinity.)
- Jewish settlement in the Japanese Empire
- Kuhn & Komor
The Radhanites (also Radanites, Arabic الرذنية ar-Raðaniyya; Hebrew sing. רדהני Radhani, pl. רדהנים Radhanim) were medieval Jewish merchants. [ . . .] Jewish merchants operated in trade between the Christian and Islamic worlds during the early Middle Ages(approximately 500–1000). Many trade routes previously established under the Roman Empire continued to function during that period – largely through their efforts. Their trade network covered much of Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia and parts of India and China.
The activities of the Radhanites are documented by ibn Khordadbeh – the postmaster, chief of police (and spymaster) for the province of Jibal, under the Abbasid Caliph al-Mu’tamid – when he wrote Kitab al-Masalik wal-Mamalik (Book of Roads and Kingdoms), in about 870. Ibn Khordadbeh described the Radhanites as sophisticated and multilingual. He outlined four main trade routes utilized by the Radhanites in their journeys; all four began in the Rhone Valley in southern France and terminated on the east coast of China. Radhanites primarily carried commodities that combined small bulk and high demand, including spices, perfumes, jewelry, and silk. They are also described as transporting oils, incense, steel weapons, furs, and slaves.
These merchants speak Arabic, Persian, Roman, the Frank, Spanish, and Slav languages. They journey from West to East, from East to West, partly on land, partly by sea. They transport from the West eunuchs, female slaves, boys, brocade, castor, marten and other furs, and swords. They take ship from Firanja (France), on the Western Sea, and make for Farama (Pelusium). There they load their goods on camel-back and go by land to al-Kolzum (Suez), a distance of twenty-five farsakhs. They embark in the East Sea and sail from al-Kolzum to al-Jar and al-Jeddah, then they go to Sind, India, and China. On their return from China they carry back musk, aloes, camphor, cinnamon, and other products of the Eastern countries to al-Kolzum and bring them back to Farama, where they again embark on the Western Sea. [ . . . ]
[ . . . ] During the Early Middle Ages the Islamic polities of the Middle East and North Africa and the Christian kingdoms of Europe often banned each other’s merchants from entering their ports. Corsairs of both sides raided the shipping of their adversaries at will. The Radhanites functioned as neutral go-betweens, keeping open the lines of communication and trade between the lands of the old Roman Empire and the Far East. As a result of the revenue they brought, Jewish merchants enjoyed significant privileges under the early Carolingians in France and throughout the Muslim world, a fact that sometimes vexed local Church authorities.
While most trade between Europe and East Asia had historically been conducted via Persian and Central Asian intermediaries, the Radhanites were among the first to establish a trade network that stretched from Western Europe to Eastern Asia. More remarkable still, they engaged in this trade regularly and over an extended period of time, centuries before Marco Polo and ibn Battuta brought their tales of travel in the Orient to the Christians and the Muslims, respectively. Indeed, ibn Battuta is believed to have traveled with the Muslim traders who traveled to the Orient on routes similar to those used by the Radhanites.
[ . . .] Historically, Jewish communities used letters of credit to transport large quantities of money without the risk of theft from at least classical times. This system was developed and put into force on an unprecedented scale by medieval Jewish merchants such as the Radhanites; if so, they may be counted among the precursors to the banks that arose during the late Middle Ages and early modern period.
Some scholars believe that the Radhanites may have played a role in the conversion of the Khazars to Judaism. In addition, they may have helped establish Jewish communities at various points along their trade routes, and were probably involved in the early Jewish settlement of Eastern Europe, Central Asia, China and India. Much of the Radhanites’ Indian Ocean trade was via coastal cargo ships such as this dhow.
Besides ibn Khordadbeh, the Radhanites are mentioned by name only by a handful of sources. Ibn al-Faqih‘s early 10th century Kitab al-Buldan (“Book of the Countries”) mentions them, but much of ibn al-Faqih’s information was derived from ibn Khordadbeh’s work. Sefer ha-Dinim, a Hebrew account of the travels of Yehuda ben Meir of Mainz, named Przemyśl and Kiev as trading sites along the Radhanite route. In the early 12th century, a French-Jewish trader named Yitzhak Dorbelo wrote that he traveled with Radhanite merchants to Poland.
The fall of the Tang Dynasty of China in 908 and the destruction of the Khazar Khaganate some sixty years later (circa 968–969 AD) led to widespread chaos in Inner Eurasia, the Caucasus and China. Trade routes became unstable and unsafe, a situation exacerbated by Turkic invasions of Persia and the Middle East, and the Silk Road largely collapsed for centuries. This period saw the rise of the mercantile Italian city-states, especially Genoa, Venice, Pisa, and Amalfi, who viewed the Radhanites as unwanted competitors.
The economy of Europe was profoundly affected by the disappearance of the Radhanites. For example, documentary evidence indicates that many spices in regular use during the early Middle Ages completely disappeared from European tables in the 10th century. Jews had previously, in large parts of Western Europe, enjoyed a virtual monopoly on the spice trade.
Some have speculated that a collection of 11th century Jewish scrolls discovered in a cave in Afghanistan’s Samangan province in 2011 may be a “leftover” of the Rhadanites, who had mostly disappeared by the 11th century.
The Tang dynasty purchased Western slaves from the Radanite Jews. Tang Chinese soldiers and pirates enslaved Koreans, Turks, Persians, Indonesians, and people from Inner Mongolia, central Asia, and northern India.The greatest source of slaves came from southern tribes, including Thais and aboriginals from the southern provinces of Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, and Guizhou. Malays, Khmers, Indians, and black Africans were also purchased as slaves in the Tang dynasty.
Many Jewish communities were established in China in the Middle Ages. However, not all left evidence of their existence. The following are those known today: Kaifeng, Hangzhou, Ningbo, Yangzhou, and Ningxia.
Encyclopedia of Diasporas. Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World. Vol. I, Jewish Diaspora in China by Xu Xin, pp.153-154, Ember, Melvin; Ember, Carol R.; Skoggard, Ian (Eds.), Springer 2004
During the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644), a Ming emperor conferred seven surnames upon the Jews, by which they are identifiable today: Ai (艾), Shi (石), Gao (高), Jin (金), Li (李), Zhang (張), and Zhao (趙); sinofications of the original seven Jewish clan’s family names: Ezra, Shimon, Cohen, Gilbert, Levy, Joshua, and Jonathan, respectively. Interestingly, two of these: Jin and Shi are the equivalent of common Jewish names in the west: Gold and Stone.
Bruce’s father, Lee Hoi-chuen, (李海泉) was Han Chinese, and his mother, Grace Ho (何愛瑜), was of Eurasian ancestry. Grace Ho was the adopted daughter of Ho Kom-tong (Ho Gumtong, 何甘棠) and the half-niece of Sir Robert Ho-tung, both notable Hong Kong businessmen and philanthropists.Bruce was the fourth child of five children: Phoebe Lee (李秋源), Agnes Lee (李秋鳳), Peter Lee (李忠琛), and Robert Lee (李振輝).
Grace’s parentage remains unclear. Linda Lee in her 1989 biography The Bruce Lee Story suggests that Grace had a German father and was a Catholic. Bruce Thomas in his influential 1994 biography Bruce Lee: Fighting Spirit suggests that Grace had a Chinese mother and a German father. Lee’s relative Eric Peter Ho in his 2010 book Tracing My Children’s Lineage suggests that Grace was born in Shanghai to a Eurasian woman named Cheung King-sin.
Ho Kom-tong (1866–1950) was a younger maternal half-brother of Robert Hotung’s. The son of a Chinese father, he was a prominent businessman and philanthropist who succeeded Ho Fook as Head Compradore at Jardines. He had 12 wives and reportedly more than 30 children, one of whom was Grace Ho Oi-yu (何爱瑜) (b. 1907 d.1996), a Eurasian and an adopted daughter, who went on to become the mother of the famous martial artist and actor Bruce Lee. Ho Kom-Tong’s last mistress was a Eurasian woman by the name of Cheung King-sin (張瓊仙) (b. 1866 d. 1960). Kom Tong Hall, the former Hong Kong residence of Ho Kom-tong, now houses the Dr. Sun Yat-sen Museum.
Solomon Adler (August 6, 1909 — August 4, 1994) was an economist in the U.S. Treasury Department who served as Treasury representative in China during World War II. He was identified by Whittaker Chambers and Elizabeth Bentley as a Sovietintelligence source and resigned from the Treasury Department in 1950. After several years teaching at Cambridge University in England, he returned to China, where he resided from the 1960s until his death, working as a translator and economic advisor. Beginning in the early 1960s, Adler was also affiliated with the International Liaison Department, an important Chinese Communist Party organ whose functions include foreign intelligence. [. . .] He came to the United States in 1935 to do “research”. In 1936 he was hired at the Works Progress Administration‘s National Research Project, but soon moved to the Treasury Department’s Division of Monetary Research and Statistics, where he worked with Harry Dexter White for the next several years.[. . .] His reports from China to Treasury secretary Henry Morgenthau, Jr. during the war years were widely circulated and played an important role in shaping American wartime economic policy toward China. [. . .] Adler moved to China in the early 1960s, working in the lead group of the team translating Mao Zedong‘s works into English.
In 1939, Whittaker Chambers identified Adler to then-Assistant Secretary of State Adolf Berle as a member of an underground Communist group in Washington, D.C., the Ware group. Chambers correctly identified Adler as serving in the General Counsel’s Office at the Treasury Department, from which, Chambers said, Adler supplied weekly reports to the American Communist party. In 1945, Elizabeth Bentley identified Adler as a member of the Silvermaster group. A 1948 memo written by Anatoly Gorsky, a former NKVD rezident in Washington D.C., identified Adler as a Soviet agent designated “Sax.” This agent, transliterated “Sachs (Saks)” appears in the Venona decrypts supplying information about the Chinese Communists through both Gorsky and American Communist Party head Earl Browder.
In addition to his contacts with U.S. espionage groups, while serving as Treasury attache in China in 1944, Adler shared a house with Chinese Communist secret agent Chi Ch’ao-ting and State Department officer John Stewart Service, who was arrested the following year in the Amerasia case.
Together with Harry Dexter White, Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, and V. Frank Coe, Director of the Treasury’s Division of Monetary Research, Adler strongly opposed a gold loan program of $200 million to help the Nationalist Chinese Government control the inflation that took hold in unoccupied China during World War II. Inflation in China between 1943 and 1945 was more than 1,000% per year, weakening the Nationalist government in China. This inflation helped the Communists eventually come to power in China, and in later years White, Coe, and Adler were accused of having deliberately fostered the Chinese inflation by obstructing the stabilization loan.
A Chinese work published in 1983 stated that from 1963 on Adler worked for China’s International Liaison Department, an organ of the Chinese Communist Party whose functions include foreign intelligence. According to historian R. Bruce Craig, Adler’s apartment in Beijing was provided by the Liaison Department, indicating that the Department was Adler’s work unit.
Israel Epstein (20 April 1915 – 26 May 2005) was a ‘naturalized’ Chinese journalist and author. He was one of the few foreign-born Chinese citizens of non-Chinese origin to become a member of the Communist Party of China.
Israel Epstein was born on 20 April 1915 in Warsaw to Jewish parents; at the time, Warsaw was under Imperial Russian control (now the capital of Poland). His father had been imprisoned by the authorities of czarist Russia for leading a labor uprising and his mother had been exiled to Siberia. Epstein’s father was sent by his company to Japan after the outbreak of the World War I; when the German Army approached Warsaw, his mother and Epstein fled and joined him in Asia. With his family experiencing ‘anti-Jewish’ sentiment in several places, in 1917, Epstein came to China with his parents at the age of two and they settled in Tianjin (formerly Tientsin) in 1920.
Israel Epstein began to work in journalism at age 15, when he wrote for the Peking and Tientsin Times, an English-language newspaper based in Tianjin. He also covered the Japanese Invasion of China for the United Press and other Western news agencies. In the autumn of 1938, he joined the China Defense League, which had been established by Soong Ching-ling, Sun Yat-sen‘s widow, for the purpose of publicizing and enlisting international support for the Chinese cause. In 1941, he faked news about his own death as a decoy for the Japanese who were trying to arrest him. The misinformation even found its way into a short item printed in the New York Times.
After being assigned to review one of the books of Edgar Snow, Epstein and Snow came to know each other personally and Snow showed him his classic work Red Star Over China before it was published.
In 1934, Epstein married Edith Bihovsky Epstein, later Ballin, from whom he was divorced in the early 1940s. In 1944, Epstein first visited Britain and afterwards went to live in the United States with his second wife Elsie Fairfax-Cholmeley for five years. (Elsie Fairfax-Cholmeley may possibly be related to Sybil Cholmondeley, the Rothschild, and / or Sassoon families.)
He worked for Allied Labor News and published his book The Unfinished Revolution in China in 1947. His book was enthusiastically reviewed in The New York Times by Owen Lattimore of Johns Hopkins University. In 1951 Communist defector Elizabeth Bentley testified to the U.S. Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, “Israel Epstein had been a member of the Russian secret police for many years in China.”
Many years later, his wife, Ms. Cholmeley, would become known to a generation of Chinese-language students in China and around the world as a contributor to one of the most widely used Chinese-English dictionaries published in the PRC. After Ms. Cholmeley’s death in 1984, Epstein married his third wife, Wan Bi.
In 1951, Soong Ching-ling invited him to return to China to edit the magazine China Reconstructs, which was later renamed China Today. He remained editor-in-chief of China Today until his retirement at age 70, and then editor emeritus. During his tenure at China Today, he became a Chinese citizen in 1957 and a member of the Communist Party of China in 1964. In 1955, 1965 and 1976 Epstein visited Tibet, and based on these three visits in 1983 published the book Tibet Transformed.
During the Cultural Revolution, on charges of plotting against Zhou Enlai, he was imprisoned in 1968 in the north of Beijing in Qincheng Prison, where he was subjected to solitary confinement. In 1973, he was released, and Zhou apologized. His privileges were restored. Despite his 5 years imprisonment, he remained loyal to the ideals of Communism until his death. Israel Epstein was elected as a member of the Standing Committee of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, an advisory body, in 1983.
(According so some sources, Israel Epstein, became the Minister of Appropriations in China, an very powerful position.)
Robert Lawrence Kuhn
Robert Lawrence Kuhn (born 1944) is a “public intellectual”, international corporate strategist and investment banker. He has a doctorate in brain research and is the author and editor of over 25 books. He is a long-time adviser to China’s leaders and the Chinese government, to multinational corporations on China strategies and transactions, and is a frequent commentator on China politics, economics, business, finance, philosophy and science. He is a columnist for China Daily and South China Morning Post and appears on the BBC, CNN, China Central Television, Bloomberg and other major media. Kuhn is the creator and host of the CCTV News show Closer to China with R.L.Kuhn. Kuhn is the creator, writer and host of the public television series Closer to Truth, which presents scientists and philosophers discussing fundamental issues (cosmos, consciousness, philosophy/religion). His essays are featured on LiveScience.com and Space.com.
[ . . . ] During the 1980s, Kuhn represented American and Japanese companies in mergers and acquisitions.
Kuhn provided the live commentary on CNN during President Xi Jinping’s policy address in Seattle on September 2, 2015 during Xi’s state visit to the US. Kuhn spoke at the launch ceremony of Xi’s book, entitled Xi Jinping: The Governance of China at the Frankfurt Book Fair on October 8, 2014.
Kuhn writes on Xi’s Four Comprehensives political theory of governance, and on understanding the Communist Party of China (CPC).
For the 18th CPC National Congress in Nov. 2012, Kuhn provided commentary for the BBC, CNN, New York Times, Washington Post, Bloomberg, CNBC, AP, Reuters, Euronews, etc. He was the featured foreign commentator daily on China Central Television (CCTV News). His essays introduced China’s new leaders and China’s new government and offered personal insights into China’s new leaders, the seven members of the new Standing Committee of the Politburo and “New challenges for new leaders”. It also presents the multiple problems that China’s new government must address. Since 1989, when he was invited to China by the State Science and Technology Commission (under Song Jian), Kuhn has worked with China’s senior leaders and advised the Chinese government on international, policy and business matters.
Kuhn is the author of How China’s Leaders Think: The Inside Story of China’s Past, Current and Future Leaders, featuring exclusive discussions with more than 100 Chinese leaders and officials and introducing China’s next generation of senior leaders.
He wrote The Man Who Changed China: The Life and Legacy of Jiang Zemin. It was the first biography of a living Chinese leader and was a best-seller in China in 2005. Kuhn is co-editor-in-chief of China’s Banking & Financial Markets: The Internal Research Report of the Chinese Government.
Kuhn advises and works with China leaders on special projects. When then-Vice President Xi visited the US in February, 2012, Kuhn advised and gave commentaries and interviews. He advised Zhejiang Province for Zhejiang Party Secretary Xi’s 2006 U.S. visit as well.
He is the host and co-producer of “Closer To China with R.L.Kuhn”, a weekly series on CCTV News that tells the story of China through discussions with China’s thought leaders and decision makers in all sectors.
Kuhn is creator, writer and host of the five-part public television TV series China’s Challenges, co-produced with Shanghai Media Group, which won first prize in China News Award and is presented by PBS SoCaL (2013). The series focuses on critical issues confronting China’s leaders and government (social problems like healthcare, economic transformation and pollution, political reform and transparency, science and innovation, beliefs and values). China’s Challenges II, focusing on the Chinese Dream, was broadcast on PBS stations in 2015 and won an Emmy (Los Angeles, 2016).
BUSINESS AND FINANCE
Kuhn advises multinational companies and executives on China strategies in a variety of sectors, including science and technology, information technology, energy and resources, industrial, media and entertainment, healthcare / medical / pharmaceuticals, consumer products, financial services. He works with major Chinese companies on capital markets and mergers and acquisitions. Kuhn is Senior Adviser to Ernst & Young (Office of the chairman).
He was president and co-owner of The Geneva Companies, the largest mergers and acquisitions firm in the U.S., representing middle-market companies (sold to Citigroup in 2000).
MEDIA AND PUBLICATIONS
Kuhn is the author or editor of 25 books on business strategy/finance and science/philosophy, including Dow-Jones Irwin’s seven-volume Library of Investment Banking. He is a frequent commentator on the BBC (BBC World News / BBC World Service), CNN, Bloomberg, others. Kuhn is a senior international commentator for political, economic, social and business matters on CCTV News. He has written for Bloomberg BusinessWeek, Forbes and Chief Executive. Kuhn is a regular columnist for China Daily and South China Morning Post on China politics/economics and international affairs.
He was profiled in Barron’s. He is one of the China Visionaries in the TV series produced for China’s 60th anniversary by Shanghai Media Group (one of two Americans, along with Henry Kissinger) and he was featured on CCTV Channel 1’s Focus Talk. Kuhn created, wrote and presented a six-episode series on Expo 2010 Shanghai, broadcast on CCTV. For the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, Kuhn co-produced (with Shanghai Media Group), wrote and presented a five-episode TV series, China’s Challenges, on China’s key domestic issues and problems that China’s new leaders face. Kuhn was selected by Oriental Outlook magazine (published by Xinhua News Agency) as one of the all-time top-ten influential supporters of China’s ruling party/CPC (the only one living).
Kuhn has written many articles. “Science as Democratizer”, featured in American Scientist magazine, argued how the scientific way of thinking can influence global society. His scientific / philosophical article “Why This Universe? Toward a Taxonomy of Possible Explanations” is published in Skeptic Magazine and “Levels of Nothing” in the Vol. 18.2 2013 issue.
Kuhn’s multimedia essays are on Space.com and LiveScience.com: “Forget Space-Time: Information May Create the Cosmos”, “The Illusion of Time: What’s Real?”, “Is Our Universe a Fake?”, “The Singularity, Virtual Immortality and the Trouble with Consciousness”.
Kuhn’s latest book, edited with John Leslie, is The Mystery of Existence: Why is there Anything At All?
The Kuhn Foundation
Kuhn is chairman of the Kuhn Foundation, which disseminates understanding in science and philosophy, supports cultural endeavors and promotes good relations between America and China. The Foundation produces the Closer to TruthTV series. It also produced the documentary of his wife Dora Serviarian-Kuhn, Khachaturian, which won the Best Documentary award at the 2003 Hollywood Film Festival and (with China Central Television) In Search of China for PBS.
The Geneva Companies
From 1991 to 2001, Kuhn was president and co-owner of the Geneva Companies, a mergers and acquisitions (M&A) firm representing privately owned, middle-market companies. In 2000 Kuhn sold the Geneva Companies to Citigroup.
Several reviewers argue that Kuhn has obtained privileged access to China’s leaders by refraining from critical comments, producing propaganda instead of serious works of non-fiction. A review in Foreign Affairs said it was actually better understood as an autobiography, presenting an image that China’s leaders want the world to see. Additionally, it said the writing of the book was, beginning in 2001, overseen by a secret state propaganda team.The Asian Review of Books said that the first part of Kuhn’s biography of Jiang was “close to hagiography“. A review on the website of Forbes said his later book, How China’s Leaders Think: The Inside Story of China’s Past, Current and Future Leaders, was equally reluctant to criticize Hu Jintao, the leader who followed Jiang. The reviewer writes: “Kuhn merely repeats what the Communist Party says about itself and accepts its words at face value, taking obsequiousness to new heights.”
Sidney Rittenberg (born August 14, 1921) [ . . . ] lived in China from 1944 to 1980. He worked closely with Mao Zedong, Zhu De, Zhou Enlai, and other leaders of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) during the war, and was with these central Communist leaders at Yan’an. He witnessed first-hand much of what occurred at upper levels of the CCP and knew many of its leaders personally. Later, he was imprisoned in solitary confinement, twice, for a total of 16 years. He was the first American citizen to join the CCP.
Rittenberg’s connections and experience have enabled him to run a successful consultancy business representing some of the world’s biggest brands, such as Intel, Levi Strauss, Microsoft, Hughes Aircraft and Teledesic.
Rittenberg was born into a Jewish family in Charleston, South Carolina, and lived there until his college studies. After attending Porter Military Academy, he turned down a full scholarship to Princeton University and instead attended the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he majored in philosophy. While attending Chapel Hill, he became a member of the Dialectic Society and the US Communist Party. In 1942, following the entry of the US into World War II—and after his leaving the Communist Party—Rittenberg joined the Army and was sent to Stanford’s Army Far Eastern Language and Area School to learn Japanese. Rittenberg did not wish to be assigned to study Japanese, and was able to be assigned to learn Chinese instead. This led to his being sent to China in 1944. Rittenberg said that one of the turning points in his life came shortly after he arrived in China. He was sent to bring a $26 check to the family of a girl who was killed by a drunken US soldier. Despite the family’s devastation, they gave Rittenberg $6 for his help. It was at that point that “something inside Sidney Rittenberg shifted.” After the end of the war, he decided to stay in China as part of the United Nations famine relief program. This led to his meeting the leaders of the Communist movement at Yan’an in 1946.
INTERPRETING FOR MAO
Twice, Rittenberg interpreted a message for the United States from Mao Zedong. The message was the same both times. Mao said that after the war was over in China, and after Mao became the leader of the country, he wanted to still have a good relationship with the United States. This was for two reasons: first, because the United States was the only country that could supply him with the money he needed to rebuild the country; second, because Mao did not wish to depend on the Soviets. Both times this message was delivered it was rejected by President Truman. Rittenberg believes that had Truman decided to talk to Mao, both the Korean War and the Vietnam War could possibly have been averted.
The Communist Party leadership sought Rittenberg’s assistance in translating their messages into English, including the writings of Mao. Rittenberg also worked for the Xinhua News Agency and Radio Peking.
During the Cultural Revolution, Rittenberg was radicalized and in the summer of 1967 headed the “Norman Bethune – Yan’an rebel group”, which had about seventy members. He led political struggles at China Radio International. Han Suyin at that time said that Rittenberg was in complete control of the radio station. On April 8, 1967, the People’s Daily published a long article written by him. On April 10, he represented a faction of foreigners in struggle session against Wang Guangmei at Tsinghua University. He also attacked other foreigners who were living in Beijing at that time, including Ma Haide (George Hatem). Ma Haide had advised Rittenberg not to interfere in Chinese political affairs.
Baron Robert Rothschild (16 December 1911, in Brussels – 3 December 1998, in London) was a Belgian diplomat. He helped to draft the Treaty of Rome of 1957, the foundation of the European Economic Community (EEC) in 1958.
His father, a businessman of German-Jewish descent, descended from Moses Amschel Bauer, of Frankfurt am Main, whose son Mayer Amschel Rothschild, together with his five sons, founded the Rothschild banking dynasty. Robert decided to become a diplomat. Luckily his father was a friend of Paul Spaak, whose son Paul-Henri Spaak became foreign minister of Belgium in 1936. Robert passed the diplomatic service examination in 1936 and joined the private office of Paul-Henri Spaak in April 1937. [ . . . ]
Robert remained in Lisbon until 1944, when he was sent, at his request to China. He became first secretary at the Belgian embassy in Chungking, the headquarters of Chiang Kai-shek‘s government. During the Japanese occupation, there was a lull in the Chinese civil war. The Communists of Mao Zedong even had an envoy in Chungking in the person of Zhou Enlai, whom he grew to like. After the Japanese surrender, he flew to Shanghai, where, in 1946, he was appointed consul general. The Chinese civil war revived and in 1949 the Communists entered Shanghai. Under pressure from the French, who hoped to protect their interests in Indochina, Belgium declined to recognise the People’s Republic of China for the next 20 years. He considered this a political mistake and regretted the failure to comprehend the rivalry between Soviet and Chinese Communism.
In early 1950, he left Shanghai for Washington, D.C. as second counsellor at the Belgian embassy. It was the time of the Korean War and the build-up of NATO and after two years in Washington, Robert went to Paris as a Belgian representative on the council of NATO.
Indian merchant and banker; born at Bagdad Oct., 1792; died at Bombay Nov. 7, 1864. He had a fair knowledge of Hebrew, Arabic, Persian, Turkish, and Hindustani, but not of English. His father, who was a wealthy Mesopotamian merchant, and who was for many years state treasurer to the Turkish governor of Bagdad, was known as “Nasi [= “Prince”] of the Captivity.” David Sassoon was employed in a banking-house at Bagdad till 1822. After the plague he left Bagdad for Bassora, proceeding thence to Bushire. In 1832 an important commercial engagement caused him to visit Bombay, to which city he subsequently removed with his family. Here he established the house of David Sassoon & Co., with branches at Calcutta, Shanghai, Canton, and Hongkong; and his business, which included a monopoly of the opium-trade, extended as far as Yokohama, Nagasaki, and other cities in Japan. Sassoon attributed his great success to the employment of his sons as his agents and to his strict observance of the law of tithe.
Jacob Henry Schiff
Jacob Henry Schiff (born Jakob Heinrich Schiff; January 10, 1847 – September 25, 1920) was a Jewish-American banker, businessman, and philanthropist. Among many other things, he helped finance the expansion of American railroads and the Japanese military efforts against Tsarist Russia in the Russo-Japanese War.
Born in Frankfurt, Germany, Schiff migrated to the United States after the American Civil War and joined the firm Kuhn, Loeb & Co. From his base on Wall Street, he was the foremost Jewish leader from 1880 to 1920 in what later became known as the “Schiff era”, grappling with all major Jewish issues and problems of the day, including the plight of Russian Jews under the Tsar, American and international anti-semitism, care of needy Jewish immigrants, and the rise of Zionism. He also became a director of many important corporations, including the National City Bank of New York, Equitable Life Assurance Society, Wells Fargo & Company, and the Union Pacific Railroad. In many of his interests he was associated with E. H. Harriman. [ . . .]
What was perhaps Schiff’s most famous financial action was during the Russo-Japanese War, in 1904 and 1905. Schiff met Takahashi Korekiyo, deputy governor of the Bank of Japan, in Paris in April 1904. He subsequently extended loans to the Empire of Japan in the amount of $200 million (equivalent to $33.1 billion in 2016), through Kuhn, Loeb & Co. These loans were the first major flotation of Japanese bonds on Wall Street, and provided approximately half the funds needed for Japan’s war effort. [ . . . ]
This loan attracted worldwide attention, and had major consequences. Japan won the war, thanks in large part to the purchase of munitions made possible by Schiff’s loan. Some of the Japanese leadership saw this as evidence of the power of Jews all around the world, raised the issue of Jewish loyalties in the Diaspora and as proof of the truth of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion. In 1905, Japan awarded Schiff the Order of the Sacred Treasure; and in 1907, the Order of the Rising Sun, Gold and Silver Star, the second highest of the eight classes of that Order. Schiff was the first foreigner to receive the Order in person from Emperor Meiji in the Imperial Palace.Schiff also had a private audience with King Edward VII of the United Kingdom in 1904.
In addition to his famous loan to Japan, Schiff financed loans to many other nations, including those that would come to comprise the Central Powers. [ . . . ]
Sidney Shapiro (Chinese: 沙博理; pinyin: Shā Bólǐ) (December 23, 1915 – October 18, 2014) was an American-born Chinese translator and author who lived in China from 1947 to 2014. He lived in Beijing for over a half century and was a member of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Council. He was one of very few naturalized citizens of the PRC.
Shapiro held citizenship of the People’s Republic of China from 1963, before the Cultural Revolution, to the end of his life. He was a member of the People’s Political Consultative Conference, a governmental assembly of the PRC which ostensibly provides a forum for input from non-Communist political organizations.[ . . . ]
Shapiro’s connections with China began during World War II, when he was serving in the United States armed forces. He was chosen to learn Chinese by the United States Army in preparation for a possible American landing in Japanese–occupied China. After attaining a law degree in the US, he went to China, arriving in Shanghai in 1947. There, he met his future wife, an actress named Fengzi (Phoenix), who was a supporter of the Communist Party of China prior to its ascent to power. Beginning in the Cultural Revolution, she spent 10 years under house arrest for her opposition to Mao’s wife, Jiang Qing. She later became one of the most prominent drama critics in the People’s Republic. [ . . . ]
For nearly 50 years, he was employed by the state-run Foreign Languages Press (FLP) as a translator of works of Chinese literature. He is best known for his highly regarded English version of Outlaws of the Marsh, one of the most important classics of Chinese literature. FLP recently reissued Shapiro’s translation as part of a bilingual collection called Library of Chinese Classics.
Shapiro was also an actor in many Chinese movies, typecast as the American villain.
Allan Zeman GBM, GBS, JP (Chinese name: 盛智文; born 1949) is a Hong Kong business magnate. He is known in Hong Kong as the “Father of Lan Kwai Fong” (蘭桂坊之父).
Zeman is prominent in government circles, sitting on various committees, boards and advisory bodies. He is a long-standing member of the Board of Governors of the Canadian Chamber of Commerce and the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce. He is a member of the Economic and Employment Council in Hong Kong. He is a board member of the Tourism Strategy Group for the Hong Kong Tourism Commission, the Cultural and Heritage Commission and the Urban Renewal Authority. He is a member of the International Events Fund Steering Committee for the Hong Kong Tourism Board. He was appointed as a member of the Services Promotion Strategy Group, chaired by the Financial Secretary. He is on the Board of the Hong Kong Arts Festival and Hong Kong Community Chest.
‘Fulfillment’ of the Jewish ‘ingathering’ ‘prophecy’
“Jewish history in the making”
The Gathering of Israel (Hebrew: קיבוץ גלויות, Kibbutz Galuyot (Biblical: Qibbuṣ Galuyoth), lit. Ingathering of the Exiles, also known as Ingathering of the Jewish diaspora) is the biblical promise of Deuteronomy 30:1-5 given by Moses to the people of Israel prior to their entrance into the Land of Israel (Eretz Yisrael).
During the days of the Babylonian exile, writings of the prophets Isaiah and Ezekiel encouraged the people of Israel with a promise of a future gathering of the exiles to the land of Israel. The continual hope for a return of the Israelite exiles to the land has been in the hearts of Jews ever since the destruction of the Second Temple.
MAIMONIDES CONNECTED ITS MATERIALIZATION WITH THE COMING OF THE MESSIAH.
The gathering of the exiles in the land of Israel, became the core idea of the Zionist Movement and the core idea of Israel’s Scroll of Independence (Megilat Ha’atzmaut), embodied by the idea of going up, Aliyah, since the Holy Land is considered to be spiritually higher than all other land. The immigration of Jews to the land and the State of Israel, the “mass” wave of Aliyot (plural form), has been likened to the Exodus from Egypt.
‘Behold, these shall come from afar, and behold these from the north and from the west, and these from the land of Sinim.’
הִנֵּ֣ה אֵ֕לֶּה מֵֽרָח֖וֹק יָבֹ֑אוּ וְהִנֵּה־אֵ֙לֶּה֙ מִצָּפ֣וֹן
וּמִיָּ֔ם וְאֵ֖לֶּה מֵאֶ֥רֶץ סִינִֽים:
The Jewish population in Israel comprises all Jewish diaspora communities, including Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, Beta Israel, Cochin Jews, Bene Israel, Karaite Jews, and many other groups. The Israeli Jewish community manifests a wide range of Jewish cultural traditions, as well as encompassing the full spectrum of religious observance, from the haredi communities to the hilonim Jewish communities who live a secular lifestyle. Among the Jewish population, over 25% of the schoolchildren and over 35% of all newborns are of mixed ancestry of both Ashkenazi and Sephardi/Mizrahi descent and increases by 0.5% each year. Over 50% of the Jewish population is of at least a partial Sephardi/Mizrahi descent.
Whatever the price of the Chinese Revolution, it has obviously succeeded not only in producing more efficient and dedicated administration, but also in fostering high morale and community of purpose. The social experiment in China under Chairman Mao’s leadership is one of the most important and successful in human history.– David Rockefeller
In China, Pushing the Talmud as a Business Guide
Jewish visitors to China often receive a snap greeting when they reveal their religion: “Very smart, very clever, and very good at business,” the Chinese person says. Last year’s Google Zeitgeist China rankings listed “why are Jews excellent?” in fourth place in the “why” questions category, just behind “why should I enter the party” and above “why should I get married?” (Google didn’t publish a “why” category in Mandarin this year.) And the apparent affection for Jewishness has led to a surprising trend in publishing over the last few years: books purporting to reveal the business secrets of the Talmud that capitalize on the widespread impression among Chinese that attributes of Judaism lead to success in the financial arts.
Titles such as Crack the Talmud: 101 Jewish Business Rules, The Illustrated Jewish Wisdom Book, and Know All of the Money-Making Stories of the Talmud share the shelves with stories of Warren Buffet and Bill Gates. There’s even a Talmud hotel in Taiwan inspired by “the Talmud’s concept of success” that features a copy of the book Talmud Business Success Bible in every room. With the increasing interest in business education in China, and a rise in sales of self-help literature, the production of business guides to the Talmud has exploded. The guides are like the Chinese equivalents of books such as Sun Tzu and the Art of Business.
Han Bing, the (pseudonymous) author of Crack the Talmud, says a series on the “Jewish Bible” by a prominent publisher made him realize that “ancient Jews and today’s Chinese face a lot of the same problems,” such as immigration and isolation. The business rules he lists include such unsurprising—and universal—exhortations as “tell a customer about defects,” “help more people,” and “a partnership based on emotions is not dependable.” No statistics are available on the sales of this sliver of the book market. But while the guides haven’t reached the heights of books such as Jewish Family Education, which claims to have sold more than 1 million copies, they currently are “very popular” and a “hot topic,” says Wang Jian, associate dean of the Center of Jewish Studies in Shanghai, a research institution that focuses on Jewish culture and history, and Israel. The Talmud “has become a handbook for doing business and seeking fortunes,” Wang says.
The Chinese perception of Jews as expert moneymakers does not have the religion-based antagonism that often accompanies the same stereotype elsewhere in the world, and probably had its start in the mid-19th century, when investors began flocking to China. Many of the first foreign real-estate tycoons, such as Silas Hardoon and the scions of the Sassoon family, were Jewish. Michael Kadoorie—who hails from a wealthy Jewish family that dates its China connection back to 19th-century Shanghai, and who’s made his fortune in power generators and hotels—currently ranks as the richest non-Chinese in greater China, with an estimated net worth of $5 billion.
The admiration for Judaism stems from a history that goes beyond business. About half of the dozen or so Westerners active in Mao Zedong’s China were Jewish, and that also led to increased interest in Jewish culture among Chinese intellectuals, says Xu Xin, professor of Jewish studies at Nanjing University. That’s resulted in mostly glowing portrayals of certain Jewish individuals in the official Chinese press. They included Sidney Rittenberg, the first American citizen to join the Chinese Communist Party, and journalist Israel Epstein, who interviewed Mao at length and whose funeral was attended by China’s President Hu Jintao and Premier Wen Jiabao. Rittenberg, who spent 16 years in solitary confinement in China, made the transition from party ideologue to consultant upon his release, and now operates the successful Rittenberg & Associates, which trades off his personal relationships with communist leaders and has advised companies including Microsoft, Hughes Aircraft, and Levi Strauss.
Non-Chinese experts on Judaism are quick to point out that the Talmud is not a business manual. While the Talmud mentions contract law, zoning, and problems involved with charging interest, it’s not a get-rich-quick guide, says Rabbi Eliezer Diamond, associate professor of Talmud and rabbinics at the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York. “I’ve heard a couple of [Chinese] people say that Jews are smart because of the Talmud. But they don’t seem to know what it is. I think they see it as some sort of secret intelligence book,” added Rabbi Nussin Rodin, a Beijing-based emissary of the Chabad-Lubavitch movement. “I once got a letter from someone in China saying, I’m very interested in making money so I’d like to know what you teach at your courses about how to make money,” says Diamond. “Of course, there aren’t too many people in the Jewish Theological Seminary pulling in the big bucks.”
The notion of the Talmud as a book full of business secrets for others to search for is not entirely benign. Two of the books feature the quote “No one can defeat the Jews, unless they’ve read our holy book the Talmud” on their cover, spuriously attributed to financier George Soros. “There are anti-Semites throughout the world who will say they want a Jewish lawyer, because Jews are good lawyers,” says Diamond. Han Bing says he has never met a Jew and cautioned NEWSWEEK that he’s not sure if he’s gotten his portrayal right. But he nevertheless states that “Jews understand that money itself is neither good nor bad.” He sees his book as “bringing some light into the dark room of Chinese businesses.” At the same time, he complains that no businessman has ever contacted him to say how the book may have changed him. “There’s just too many of these books out there,” he acknowledges.
At the Harvard of China, something brand nu — a class in Yiddish
FORWARD / September 18, 2022
At Peking University, students from a variety of majors are learning the alef-beys
Yang Meng’s Yiddish class at Peking University. Courtesy of Yang Meng
Over 30 students gathered for the first Yiddish class at Peking University in Beijing – and, according to its instructor, the first Yiddish class ever taught in China.
On the evening of Sept. 7, enrollees and auditors in majors ranging from psychology, space physics, engineering, law and mathematics, learned the alef-beys and the popular Yiddish song about learning it, “Afn Pripetshik.” Their instructor was Yang Meng, one of only a handful of Chinese academics fluent in the language. She’s also the first we know of to perform a Chinese-Yiddish song.
Yang learned Yiddish as part of her Ph.D. research on the Jewish exile in Shanghai during the Shoah. “Among the scholars of Jewish studies, I happened to know there was no mainland Chinese who spoke Yiddish at the time,” Yang said, “I thought why not give it a try!”
I spoke with Yang over email about how the class is going, the state of Jewish studies in China and why Chinese students may find common ground with Yiddish language and culture.
The following conversation has been lightly edited for length and clarity.
What would you say is the awareness of Yiddish in China? Is it distinct from the awareness of other modes of Jewish culture and languages?
The overwhelming majority of Chinese have no idea of Yiddish. Even in Peking University, the so-called Chinese Harvard, very few students or faculties ever heard about Yiddish. Some students came to my Yiddish class because they once were my students in my course “Jewish Civilization in a Global Context.”
Most Chinese have very little knowledge about Judaism because it is not part of the education in schools or in universities. Out of 200-plus students of my Jewish civilization course last semester, only five of them ever knew the word “Holocaust,” though they all knew this tragic event. Very few ever heard of Shabbat, let alone Yiddish.
From reading a piece in the Yiddish studies journal In geveb, I learned there is a Jewish studies program at Nanjing University as well. What is the state of the field of Jewish studies in China overall? And has it changed since you started?
Very few universities or academic institutions in China have Jewish studies programs, e.g., Nanjing University, Shandong University, Henan University, Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences, Heilongjiang Academy of Social Sciences, etc. Other universities only have one or two scholars who are doing related research or teaching. As in the city Beijing, where there are almost 100 universities or colleges, my Jewish civilization course is the only Jewish civilization course which is open university-wide.
Do you have people to speak Yiddish with in China? Apart from your class?
The only Yiddish-speaking couple I know in Beijing are the rabbi and his wife. So I am trying to make students understand that Yiddish is a key to Jewish culture. This was the Jewish language in the prewar Jewish world, this was the language that has influenced American English and the culture that made an impact on American society after the war, this is the language which today Holocaust survivors speak and the Orthodox community worldwide speak.
Is there anything about Yiddish — either as a language, or in the culture or stories surrounding it — that you feel Chinese students are likely to recognize in their own backgrounds and culture?
As Shanghainese is my mother tongue, I have more feelings for different languages/dialects. Today Shanghainese is also facing a similar situation as Yiddish is and even worse, as there was no such rich literature of Shanghainese as there was in Yiddish. Shanghainese has its unique flavor and it should not just disappear. There are already efforts to revive Shanghainese in Shanghai, e.g., courses on Shanghainese in school in Shanghai. Students coming from all parts of China have dialects from their hometown (their shtetl), and they might sense the meaning of a local language which is closely attached to its people.
Last semester I organized two screenings: “Menashe” and “Unorthodox” and I guided the Chinese students to understand the language and culture in the films. This semester I plan to screen films from Woody Allen and the series “Shtisel.”
Do you think you’ll get the chance to teach Yiddish next semester as well?
Next semester I will lead a seminar on “World Jewish Literature and Art.” I would love to open more on Jewish studies but it is not easy to get approved. I have tried, fought, insisted, persisted. My colleague Professor Zhao Baisheng wrote a very supportive letter for my Yiddish course and finally my Yiddish course got approved after repeated failures. I am very grateful to the Kehillat Beijing and Kehillat Shanghai. Both Jewish communities in China have offered me a lot of help and support on my teaching and I firmly believe it is very meaningful to promote Jewish studies in China and let both Chinese and Jewish civilizations find their ways to know each other.
In Shanghai, a refuge for Jews fleeing Nazi Europe
To be continued?
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! Articles can always be subject of later editing as a way of perfecting them