Wyss is the ninja institute: it’s everywhere and anywhere, but only other ninjas can detect it. Of course it’s deeply involved with Covid and the jabs too. This piece of their work is over a decade old, but you can easily see how it plays out in the 2020’s.

Wyss Institute Develops New Nanodevice Manufacturing Strategy Using Self-Assembling DNA “Building Blocks”

May 30, 2012

Novel technology could enable new tools for delivering drugs directly to disease sites in the body

Researchers at the Wyss Institute have developed a method for building complex nanostructures out of short synthetic strands of DNA. Called single-stranded tiles (SSTs), these interlocking DNA “building blocks,” akin to Legos®, can be programmed to assemble themselves into precisely designed shapes, such as letters and emoticons. Further development of the technology could enable the creation of new nanoscale devices, such as those that deliver drugs directly to disease sites.

The technology, which is described in today’s online issue of Nature, was developed by a research team led by Wyss core faculty member Peng Yin, Ph.D., who is also an Assistant Professor of Systems Biology at Harvard Medical School. Other team members included Wyss Postdoctoral Fellow Bryan Wei, Ph.D., and graduate student Mingjie Dai.

DNA is best known as a keeper of genetic information. But in an emerging field of science known as DNA nanotechnology, it is being explored for use as a material with which to build tiny, programmable structures for diverse applications. To date, most research has focused on the use of a single long biological strand of DNA, which acts as a backbone along which smaller strands bind to its many different segments, to create shapes. This method, called DNA origami, is also being pursued at the Wyss Institute under the leadership of Core Faculty member William Shih, Ph.D. Shih is also an Associate Professor in the Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology at Harvard Medical School and the Department of Cancer Biology at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute.

Examples of self-assembled DNA building blocks
Wyss researchers have built numerals, letters, and a number of other structures using short strands of DNA as building blocks.

In focusing on the use of short strands of synthetic DNA and avoiding the long scaffold strand, Yin’s team developed an alternative building method. Each SST is a single, short strand of DNA. One tile will interlock with another tile, if it has a complementary sequence of DNA. If there are no complementary matches, the blocks do not connect. In this way, a collection of tiles can assemble itself into specific, predetermined shapes through a series of interlocking local connections.

In demonstrating the method, the researchers created just over one hundred different designs, including Chinese characters, numbers, and fonts, using hundreds of tiles for a single structure of 100 nanometers (billionths of a meter) in size. The approach is simple, robust, and versatile.

As synthetically based materials, the SSTs could have some important applications in medicine. SSTs could organize themselves into drug-delivery machines that maintain their structural integrity until they reach specific cell targets, and because they are synthetic, can be made highly biocompatible.

“Use of DNA nanotechnology to create programmable nanodevices is an important focus at the Wyss Institute, because we believe so strongly in its potential to produce a paradigm-shifting approach to development of new diagnostics and therapeutics,” said Wyss Founding Director, Donald Ingber, M.D., Ph.D.

The research was supported by the Office of Naval Research, the National Science Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, and the Wyss Institute at Harvard University.

Source – Wyss Institute

UPDATE DECEMBER 2, 2021

WYSS Inst. presents: Xenobots 3.0: The New Living Robots That Can Reproduce
live webinar on December 1, 2021

Also read:

WE WRITE NEW DNA USING RNA ONLY – STAR SCIENTIST FINANCED BY EPSTEIN, DARPA AND SCHWAB’S WYSS INST.

To find out how Wyss relates to Klaus Schwab, read:

PULITZER-WORTHY! KLAUS SCHWAB’S NAZI ROOTS FINALLY TRACED!

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… and I’ll give you some more perspective on it after you watch it.

NEW YORK, NY (PRWEB) APRIL 30, 2012

<<The 2045 initiative has received the blessing and support from the Dalai Lama, as it prepares to announce the second Global Future 2045 Congress, being held in New York, June, 2013.

Dmitry Itskov, founder of 2045, met His Holiness Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama, in his residence in Dharamsala, a small mountain town in northern India.

They discussed the three major steps of 2045 Avatar Project. First, the creation of a human-like robot dubbed “Avatar A,” and a state-of-the-art brain-computer interface system to link the mind with it. Next, it be created a life support system for the human brain, which connects to the “Avatar A,” turning into “Avatar B.” The third step, named “Avatar C”, is developing an artificial brain in which to transfer one’s individual consciousness with the goal of achieving cybernetic immortality.

Creating the “Avatar C” through developing an artificial brain and understanding the nature of human consciousness, says the Dalai Lama, could be attainable, and would be a great benefit to future development of science.

“In the last few years, scientists now begin to show an interest about consciousness, as well as brain specialists, neuroscientists, who also begin to show interest about consciousness or mind. I feel that over the next decades modern science will become more complete,” said the Dalai Lama. “So up to now the matter side of science has been highly technical, highly advanced, but the mind side has not been adequate. This project, definitely, is helpful to get more knowledge.”

Several months ago, DARPA – the Pentagon’s research arm – announced their own plans on creating a militarized avatar project, serving as a soldiers surrogate on the battlefield.

“My project has very different, humanitarian goals – it involves technologies that could mark a transition for humanity, with endless benefits in the future. But already in the next few years, we will be able to enhance the life of those who are disabled, radically improving their living standards. This is just the beginning. It’s my goal to ensure it is affordable and accessible for all people – not just for the elite and the military,” said Itskov.

The Dalai Lama also agreed that it is crucial to discuss the ethics behind these types of progressive technologies. “We should carry out these experiments with a full sense of responsibility and respect for life that will only benefit humanity, benefit others.”

Itskov has been reaching out to spiritual leaders to start a dialogue about how they could reach harmonious integration with scientists. “It’s important to establish a bridge between scientists and spiritual leaders for a successful transition to a new phase for humanity,” he said.

The 2045 initiative held its first Global Future 2045 Congress in Moscow, in February 2012. There, over 50 world-leading physicists, biologists, anthropologists, sociologists, psychologists, and philosophers met seeking to develop a strategy for further development of the humankind. The initiative’s goal is to create a network with the world’s leading scientists who are focused on the development of cybernetic technology with the ultimate goal of transferring human’s individual consciousness to an artificial carrier. The network will act as an investment hub, contributing to various projects around the world.>>

This Dalai Lama acting like the Asian Pope, has officially been sponsored by Soros’ foundations some years ago. Maybe he still is, I can’t be bothered… Asset for hire, anyway.

Some of you may actually remember this story, the Russian billionaire who launched the 2045 Initiative got a lot of airtime in Western media about 10 years ago and then, again, in another media campaign, about five years later. And you probably thought what I thought: another Bill-Gates-wanna-be trying to buy some social or political relevance with a media stunt. But I’ve changed my perspective since. Twice.

I’ve first changed my perspective on this when I started to learn it’s not as far-fetched as it initially looked, from a scientific standpoint.

Forbes called this an ‘uber-sci-fi plot’ just to admit, a few paragraphs later, that DARPA is already on its way:

Take DARPA, the U.S. military’s blue-sky research agency, as an example. They’ve got their own “Avatar” program, with the ambitious goal of creating robots to operate as mind-controlled surrogates for human soldiers. Emerging research suggests that such a venture might one day succeed, given that scientists are making impressive strides towards brain-mediated limbs and exoskeletons, as well as robots able to respond to human vocal cues and movements. Itskov’s ideas (at least, stages two through four), however, essentially eclipse even the most cutting-edge elements of that ongoing research.

Forbes

Secondly, I’ve changed my mind just recently, when YouTube recommended a video about this and I’ve looked back at it with a late 2021 mindset and awareness.

What I’ve noticed now is that 2045 looks like a younger, more unhinged and reckless version of Klaus Schwab’s Fourth Industrial Revolution / Great Reset / Transhumanism.

Everyone in Western media framed it as “crazy rich Russian wants to make billionaires immortal’. That’s like commenting on the manicure of a finger that points at the moon,
Less than 5% of the ad deals with immortality / life extension.

THE REST OF THE 95% IS ABOUT BUILDING A NEW MANKIND, A NEW SPECIES AND A NEW SOCIETY. FOR ALL, AS A WAY TO AVERT A CATASTROPHE.
AS IF SCHWAB VISITED PUTIN AND MIXED TOO MUCH VODKA AND COKE.

All Schwab’s tropes are there, from nanobots to the Internet of Bodies and beyond, we even have “bodies made of nanobots”, all the Borg is there…

What I also know now is that we’re closer, technically, to the objectives, but far from keeping up with the 2045 agenda, and I suspect no one really hoped for more, it was just for the flashy graphics and the tv buzz. They knew better at all times. The ‘roadmap to immortality’ was never meant to be followed, that was a bait for normies, the switch must have been the rest of the message, an 7 minutes ad for Transhumanism followed by a huge media campaign.

You can’t sell Western Transhumanism in Russia, especially when delivered by a freaky German and his pedo-nerdish lemmings. You have to give it the local touch and add Russian pride to it. Well, everyone got served.

<<The Russian Cosmists were late nineteenth and early twentieth century thinkers, whose philosophy, according to anthropologist Anya Bernstein, proposed a “unique combination of scientific and occult ideas.” Cosmist writings were banned during the Soviet period, but those who protected their works were devoted to the idea of “transcendence of space, time, and the body, mastery of nature, settlement of the outer space, and even the resurrection of the dead.”

They were also, it’s worth noting, very, very into being Russian.

In the book The Russian Cosmists author George Young writes that many Cosmists believed their philosophy could satisfy the “Russian soul” and considered their ways of thinking to be patriotic. Cosmist theology — it has more than a tinge of the religious to it — centers around the idea of a bold, happy future controlled by Russia.

“If Cosmism is viewed by its prominent adherents as the most Russian and therefore most significant current of thought running from the nineteenth through the twenty-first century, outside Russia the movement and the figures associated with it are all but unknown,” writes Young. “The Western transhumanists, the cryonicists, the immortalists, and certain new age spiritual movements share some Cosmist idea and practices and present the closest foreign analog.”

OG Cosmist thinker Nikolai Federov.Wikimedia

A resurgence in the popularity of the Cosmist ideas and writings in Russia has led Bernstein to question whether the way of thinking is now “a nationalist movement, indeed, a new Russian idea.” She points to the recent firing of the editor of the journal Russian Planet for failing to use the platform to reflect Russia’s preeminence as a cultured nation. The firing offense? He didn’t reference the Cosmists enough.

Bernstein also raises the point of Vladimir Putin. While neither President Putin or the Russian government has ever offered official support of the Cosmist way of thinking, some truthers have taken to analyzing the Russian leader’s public statements. In a December speech the President announced, “We all want the same thing: well-being for Russia. So the relations between business and the state should be built on the philosophy of the common task, partnership, and equal dialogue. The Philosophy of the Common Task was the title of collected works of Cosmist icon Nikolai Fedorov so in the words of conspiracy theorists everywhere, you do the math. Actual endorsement notwithstanding, a philosophy that encourages cracking the code to live forever certainly seems on brand for Putin. Some cartoonists have joked that Putin supports Cosmist/transhumanist initiatives so that he can extend his life enough to keep running for President.

While Putin has stayed mum on his Cosmist leanings, other Russians blurring the line between Cosmist and transhumanism have been more upfront with their support of a cyborg future. Russia 2045 is the project of millionaire media mogul Dmitry Itskov, whose initiative to replace biological bodies with artificial avatars may seem insane but not not-insane enough to not be profiled in the business section of The New York Times.

In a hype video that would make Michael Bay proud, Russia 2045 declares that our civilization has become like an “uncaptained ship sailing on rough seas with neither chart nor compass.” What society with our imperfect biological bodies need is the technology that will extend our lives — and could very well mean that we live forever. While the organization’s website notes that a “100 percent guarantee of implementation within a specific time cannot be provided” it does encourage people to start thinking about what robotic avatars they will prefer — a robotic copy of a human body with a brain-computer interface, a robotic body that will carry your head once your first body runs out of steam, or a “completely non-biological” body and brain onto which your consciousness has been uploaded.

Russian-identifying martial-artist Steven Seagal is a supporter of the 2045 project, and personally wrote to Vladimir Putin requesting that he support what he describes as a “social movement.” Inverse has reached out to Seagal to see if his support for the project still stands.

“For me it is obvious that this initiative will strengthen Russia’s position in world science, [and] underline Russia’s role in the international community as the country claiming leadership in setting and solving global problems for the betterment of mankind,” writes Seagal in his letter.

Bernstein proposes that Cosmism has the possibility to strengthen Russian national identity in the same way the country got jazzed about Eurasianism in the early 2000s. But with its’ blending of occult-like philosophies and reliance on technology it’s still very taboo in more conservative circles, especially among the Russian Orthodox church who aren’t ready to concede that transhumanism is the “religion of the 21st century.”

Part of the underlying tenets of Cosmism is that Russia will have a active role in controlling the future; of managing the cosmos — basically the most Kremlin-ready philosophy ever.>> – Inverse Mag

You’re nowhere on this map yet, but on the other ones…

And while many people still regard Russia through 50year old Cold War lenses and think Putin is opposed to the new global regime, I know better.

Davos and the WEF are filled with Russians, their Cyberpoygon is organized by a Russian bank and cybersecurity company in Russia, and I’ve shown you earlier that Klaus Schwab refers to Putin as a former disciple and early member of his youth organization, the ‘Young Global Leaders’.

Also, when 2045 got launched, it only took a celebritard like Steven Seagal to get prime-minister Putin’s support.

In Dmitry Itskov’s own words:

“On 16 May, 2011 Hollywood actor and martial arts master, Steven Seagal, publicly endorsed our movement and personally proposed that Mr. Putin consider a partnership with the “Russia 2045” movement.  Later we sent the prime minister a letter requesting that he support the international scientific research center which we are now establishing that will specialize in extending human life and improving its quality using cybernetic technology.  As a result a panel discussion was held at the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation and protocol that supported several initiatives of the 2045 Movement.

We have merely proposed that the Russian authorities consider partnering with our movement because participation in such a project is strategically important for our country.  However, “Russia 2045” has never been a project personally initiated by Vladimir Putin, nor has it ever been an initiative of any other ministry of the Russian government.  The goal of our project is to create accessible cybernetic technology to radically extend the lives of all people.  It has never been connected to the secret machinations of influential politicians and wealthy businessmen.

We believe that the goal of bringing about the immorality of all mankind may require the help of not just government and its leader, but the help of the whole international community.  We are now seeking the partnership of Russia, the United States, the European Union, and the United Nations, as well as other nations and organizations and will openly announce any kind of partnership on our movement’s website.”

Wham-bam, spasiba m’am!

Bottom line, 10 years later:

No one seems stressed with that roadmap

No notable scientific progress emerged from all this.

What has emerged was a ton of buzz for Transhumanism and the Fourth Industrial Revolution, with click-baits for both the East and West. Russians were surely made more aware of it, and they got sold a globalist agenda while their patriotism seemed to be catered, at a superficial glance.

Also, Russia appears as having technological ambitions and capabilities that rival or get ahead DARPA’s, it all sounds much like the space race during the Cold War.

Doesn’t seem likely that this is by accident or took anyone by surprise.

AND THIS IS, LADIES AND GENTS, LOOKS VERY MUCH LIKE THE COGNITIVE WARFARE I WAS TALKING ABOUT IN MY PREVIOUS REPORT.

To be continued?
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I can’t find the irony because I’m distracted by the facts.
The highlights in the text are mine, they are the key.

Flipping a Switch Inside the Head

With new technology, scientists are able to exert wireless control over brain cells of mice with just the push of a button. The first thing they did was make the mice hungry.

By W. Wayt Gibbs, APRIL 1, 2017

READY YOUR TINFOIL HATS—mind control is not as far-fetched an idea as it may seem. In Jeffrey M. Friedman’s laboratory, it happens all the time, though the subjects are mice, not people.

Friedman and his colleagues have demonstrated a radio-operated remote control for the appetite and glucose metabolism of mice—a sophisticated technique to wirelessly alter neurons in the animals’ brains. At the flick of a switch, they are able to make mice hungry—or suppress their appetite—while the mice go about their lives normally. It’s a tool they are using to unravel the neurological basis of eating, and it is likely to have applications for studies of other hard-wired behaviors.

Friedman, Marilyn M. Simpson Professor, has been working on the technique for several years with Sarah Stanley, a former postdoc in his lab who now is assistant professor at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, and collaborators at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Aware of the limitations of existing methods for triggering brain cells in living animals, the group set out to invent a new way. An ideal approach, they reasoned, would be as noninvasive and non-damaging as possible. And it should work quickly and repeatedly.

Although there are other ways to deliver signals to neurons, each has its limitations. In deep-brain stimulation, for example, scientists thread a wire through the brain to place an electrode next to the target cells. But the implant can damage nearby cells and tissues in ways that interfere with normal behavior. Optogenetics, which works similarly but uses fiber optics and a pulse of light rather than electricity, has the same issue. A third strategy—using drugs to activate genetically modified cells bred into mice—is less invasive, but drugs are slow to take effect and wear off.

The solution that Friedman’s group hit upon, referred to as radiogenetics or magnetogenetics, avoids these problems. With their method, published last year in Nature, biologists can turn neurons on or off in a live animal at will—quickly, repeatedly, and without implants—by engineering the cells to make them receptive to radio waves or a magnetic field.

“In effect, we created a perceptual illusion that the animal had a drop in blood sugar.”

“We’ve combined molecules already used in cells for other purposes in a manner that allows an invisible force to take control of an instinct as primal as hunger,” Friedman says.

The method links five very different biological tools, which can look whimsically convoluted, like a Rube Goldberg contraption on a molecular scale. It relies on a green fluorescent protein borrowed from jellyfish, a peculiar antibody derived from camels, squishy bags of iron particles, and the cellular equivalent of a door made from a membrane-piercing protein—all delivered and installed by a genetically engineered virus. The remote control for this contraption is a modified welding tool (though a store-bought magnet also works).

The researchers’ first challenge was to find something in a neuron that could serve as an antenna to detect the incoming radio signal or magnetic field. The logical choice was ferritin, a protein that stores iron in cells in balloon-like particles just a dozen nanometers wide. Iron is essential to cells but can also be toxic, so it is sequestered in ferritin particles until it is needed. Each ferritin particle carries within it thousands of grains of iron that wiggle around in response to a radio signal, and shift and align when immersed in a magnetic field.
We all have these particles shimmying around inside our brain cells, but the motions normally have no effect on neurons.

Friedman and Stanley, with equipment they use to send radio waves.
Friedman and Stanley, with equipment they use to send radio waves. Photo by Zachary Veilleux

Friedman’s team realized that they could use a genetically engineered virus to create doorways into a neuron’s outer membrane. If they could then somehow attach each door to a ferritin particle, they reasoned, they might be able to wiggle the ferritin enough to jostle the door open. “The ‘door’ we chose is called TRPV1,” says Stanley. “Once TRPV1 is activated, calcium and sodium ions would next flow into the cell and trigger the neuron to fire.” The bits borrowed from camels and jellyfish provided what the scientists needed to connect the door to the ferritin (see How to outfit a brain sidebar, right).

Once the team had the new control mechanism working, they put it to the test. For Friedman and Stanley, whose goal is to unravel the biological causes of overeating and obesity, the first application was obvious: Try to identify specific neurons involved in appetite. The group modified glucose-sensing neurons—cells that are believed to monitor blood sugar levels in the brain and keep them within normal range—to put them under wireless control. To accomplish this, they inserted the TRPV1 and ferritin genes into a virus and—using yet another genetic trick—injected them into the glucose-sensing neurons. They could then fiddle with the cells to see whether they are involved, as suspected, in coordinating feeding and the release of hormones, such as insulin and glucagon, that keep blood glucose levels in check.

Illustration by Jasu Hu
HOW TO OUTFIT A BRAIN FOR RADIO CONTROL
Scientists have come up with a clever way to control neurons via radio by cobbling together genes from humans, camels, and jellyfish. They use an engineered virus to install a door into each target neuron’s outer membrane, then jostle the door open using ferritin particles that respond to strong radio signals. Once the door opens, calcium ions pour into the cell and trigger the neuron to fire.
1.
To install the radiogenetics system into neurons, the scientists equipped an adenovirus with the various genes needed to make the system work. Then they squirted the modified virus onto the brain cells they wanted to alter.
2.
One of the added genes produces TRPV1, a protein that normally helps cells detect heat and motion. Within each neuron, the TRPV1 protein (pink) embeds itself into the cell’s outer membrane. Like a door, it can change shape to open or shut an ion channel. To add a knob to the door, the researchers stitched TRPV1 to a “nanobody” (violet)—an unusually simple variety of antibody found in camels.
3.
Iron-filled ferritin particles (green) serve as the system’s sensor. To allow them to grab onto the nanobody doorknob, the researchers tacked on a gene for GFP—a jellyfish protein that glows green under ultraviolet light. By design, the nanobody and GFP stick together tightly.
The system is now connected. When exposed to strong radio waves or magnetic fields, the ferritin particles wiggle, the ion channel opens, and calcium ions (red) flow in to activate the cell.

Once the virus had enough time to infect and transform the target neurons, the researchers switched on a radio transmitter tuned to 465 kHz, a little below the band used for AM radio.

The neurons responded. They began to fire, signaling a shortage of glucose even though the animal’s blood sugar levels were normal. And other parts of the body responded just as they would to a real drop in blood sugar: insulin levels fell, the liver started pumping out more glucose, and the animals started eating more. “In effect,” Friedman says, “we created a perceptual illusion that the animal had low blood glucose even though the levels were normal.”

Inspired by these results, the researchers wondered if magnetism, like radio waves, might trigger ferritin to open the cellular doors. It did: When the team put the mice cages close to an MRI machine, or waved a rare-earth magnet over the animals, their glucose-sensing neurons were triggered.

Stimulating appetite is one thing. Could they also suppress it? The group tweaked the TRPV1 gene so it would pass chloride, which acts to inhibit neurons. Now when they inserted the modified TRPV1 into the neurons, the rush of chloride made the neurons behave as if the blood was overloaded with glucose. Insulin production surged in the animals, and they ate less. “This seems to indicate clearly that the brain as well as the pancreas is involved in glucose regulation,” Friedman says.

Friedman and Stanley hope that biologists will be able to use the remote-control system to tackle a range of neural processes other than appetite. And beyond being a basic research tool, the method could potentially lead to novel therapies for brain disorders.

For example, one could imagine using it to treat Parkinson’s disease or essential tremor—conditions that are sometimes treated by deep brain stimulation, via wires implanted into patients’ brains and connected to a battery pack tucked into the chest. Potentially, it would be less invasive to inject the crippled virus into the same spot of the brain and let it permanently modify the cells there, making them responsive to wireless control.

In theory, it might also be possible to make a patient’s own cells receptive to electromagnetic waves by removing them from the body, delivering TRPV1 and ferritin, and then putting the cells back, Friedman says. This would be a protocol not unlike those currently used in stem cell treatments and some cancer immunotherapies, in which patients’ own cells are engineered and reimplanted back into their bodies.

At this point, however, the system’s clinical usefulness is a question of speculation. “We are a long way from using it in humans for medical treatments,” Friedman says. “Much would need to be done before it could even be tested.”

Bench mouse illustration

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ORDER

The latest piece of evidence to confirm many of the revelations we’ve published for the past year or so. You have to read back to get more of the picture we’re about to sketch here.


We can’t offer informed consent for these experiments conducted on us because we are not offered much information. Only rich people can access some of it at prices most of us can’t dream. Maybe you can, or maybe people start donating enough so we can afford surviving another month and buying this info for the purpose of making it freely available to everyone, as it should be.

What am I talking about is the book pictured in our cover illustration and detailed below, which costs well over 1000$!

More precisely $1185 just for a single license PDF, the hardcover print would cost you about 100 more.

Why is this thing so expensive, you may ask?

THESE INFORMATIONS ARE SO EXPENSIVE EXACTLY TO BE PROHIBITIVE TO THE PLEBS AND OFFER A LEVERAGE OVER THOSE WHO ARE KEPT OUT OF THE LOOP, IN THE DARK

Predictably so, but:

These informations also must to have the highest degree of accuracy in order to sell as expensively!

Superb quality book delivered in a timely fashion with full financial documentation received via email.

Testimonial by Dr Tom Kidd, Associate Professor, University of Nevada

Bonus for us, this book is from May 2020, so it must have been elaborated prior to April 2020. This means it might be outdated by now for investors, but witty investigators like us find an advantage in this:

THE BOOK HAS BEEN ELABORATED WITH BEHIND THE SCENES SCIENCE ON THE INDUSTRIES WHICH, IN TURN MUST HAVE HAD PRE-SCIENCE ON THE PLANDEMIC!
There was no publicly available information in March to build such a book, and the industries they talk about must have been prescient, way ahead of the writers.
Only the fact that this book existed in May 2020 is single-handedly proving there was a whole lot of awareness in some industries about the pandemic.
Corroborated with all other evidence we’ve provided on this website, pandemic pre-planning, ergo pre-science, becomes a certitude.

Until plebs learn the GameStop lesson properly and start associating their financial power to break this classism and this information gatekeeping, we have to be happy with whatever meat we can chew from the bones they throw out.
Luckily for you, I can show you how to suck a bone dry and use it to find more.
It’s not going to be a full course, but it might become more than most people can load up.

Let’s start with the description (highlights are mine):

“Nanotechnology and nanomaterials can significantly address the many clinical and public healthcare challenges that have arisen from the coronavirus pandemic. This analysis examines in detail how nanotechnology and nanomaterials can help in the fight against this pandemic disease, and ongoing mitigation strategies. Nano-based products are currently being developed and deployed for the containment, diagnosis, and treatment of Covid-19.

Nanotechnology and nanomaterials promise:

  • Improved and virus disabling air filtration.
  • Low-cost, scalable detection methods for the detection of viral particles
  • Enhanced personal protection equipment (PPE) including facemasks.
  • New antiviral vaccine and drug delivery platforms.
  • New therapeutic solutions.

Report contents include:

  • Market analysis of nano-based diagnostic tests for COVID-19 including nanosensors incorporating gold nanoparticles, iron oxide nanoparticles, graphene, quantum dots, carbon quantum dots and carbon nanotubes. Market revenues adjusted to pandemic outcomes. In-depth company profiles. Companies profiled include Abbott Laboratories, Cardea, Ferrotec (USA) Corporation, E25Bio, Grolltex, Inc., Luminex Corporation etc.
  • Market analysis of antiviral and antimicrobial nanocoatings for surfaces including fabric (mask, gloves, doctor coats, curtains, bed sheet), metal (lifts, doors handle, nobs, railings, public transport), wood (furniture, floors and partition panels), concrete (hospitals, clinics and isolation wards) and plastics (switches, kitchen and home appliances).
  • Market revenues adjusted to pandemic outcomes. In-depth company profiles. Companies profiled include Advanced Materials-JTJ s.r.o., Bio-Fence, Bio-Gate AG, Covalon Technologies Ltd., EnvisionSQ, GrapheneCA, Integricote, Nano Came Co. Ltd., NanoTouch Materials, LLC, NitroPep and many more.
  • Market analysis of air-borne virus filtration including photocatalytic Nano-TiO2 filters, nanofiber filers, nanosilver, nanocellulose, graphene and carbon nanotube filtration. Market revenues adjusted to pandemic outcomes. In-depth company profiles. Companies profiled include G6 Materials, Daicel FineChem Ltd., NANOVIA s.r.o., Toray Industries, Inc., Tortech Nano Fibers etc.
  • Market analysis of nano-based facemask and other PPE products. Market revenues adjusted to pandemic outcomes. In-depth company profiles. Companies profiled include planarTECH LLC, RESPILON Group s. r. o., SITA, Sonovia Ltd. etc.
  • Nanotherapies and drug delivery vehicles currently being produced and clinical trials of vaccines for COVID-19. Market revenues adjusted to pandemic outcomes. In-depth company profiles. In-depth company profiles. Companies profiled include Arcturus Therapeutics, Inc., Arbutus Biopharma, BlueWillow Biologics, Elastrin Therapeutics Inc., EnGeneIC Ltd. etc.
  • Key scientific breakthroughs and developments that are underway right now.”

As you can see, the description alone offers enough evidence that embedding a whole range of nanotech in facemasks, tests, drugs and many other product.

You can bet your ass your new fridge connect to the internet and has some antimicrobial nanocoating that later will prove to be worse than DDT or asbestos, but at least it’s not gonna be Covid, right?

“You could put the computational power of the spaceship Voyager onto an object the size of a cell”.
And that was back in 2018

Can we dig more clues though?

Sir, yes, sir!

I’m going to do something unusual and seemingly unpractical copying here the whole table of contents, just in case, because almost every chapter and figure title deserves to be a separate post on this website as well, besides the multitude of leads as to what to research.

1 RESEARCH SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY
1.1 Report scope
1.2 Research methodology

2 INTRODUCTION

3 DIAGNOSTIC TESTING
3.1 Nanotechnology and nanomaterials solutions
3.1.1 Current Diagnostic Tests for COVID-19
3.1.2 Emerging Diagnostic Tests for COVID-19
3.1.3 Nanosensors/nanoparticles (silver nanoclusters, Gold nanoparticles, Iron oxide nanoparticles, Quantum dot barcoding, nanowires, silica nanoparticles)
3.1.4 Carbon nanomaterials for diagnostic testing
3.2 Market revenues
3.2.1 Market estimates adjusted to pandemic demand, forecast to 2025.
3.3 Companies
3.4 Academic research

4 ANTIVIRAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL COATINGS AND SURFACES
4.1 Nanotechnology and nanomaterials solutions
4.1.1 Nanocoatings.
4.1.2 Applications
4.1.3 Anti-viral nanoparticles and nanocoatings
4.1.3.1 Reusable Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
4.1.3.2 Wipe on coatings
4.1.4 Graphene-based coatings
4.1.4.1 Properties
4.1.4.2 Graphene oxide.
4.1.4.3 Reduced graphene oxide (rGO)
4.1.4.4 Markets and applications
4.1.5 Silicon dioxide/silica nanoparticles (Nano-SiO2) -based coatings
4.1.5.1 Properties.
4.1.5.2 Antimicrobial and antiviral activity
4.1.5.3 Easy-clean and dirt repellent
4.1.6 Nanosilver-based coatings.
4.1.6.1 Properties
4.1.6.2 Antimicrobial and antiviral activity
4.1.6.3 Markets and applications.
4.1.6.4 Commercial activity
4.1.7 Titanium dioxide nanoparticle-based coatings
4.1.7.1 Properties
4.1.7.2 Exterior and construction glass coatings
4.1.7.3 Outdoor air pollution
4.1.7.4 Interior coatings
4.1.7.5 Medical facilities
4.1.7.6 Wastewater Treatment
4.1.7.7 Antimicrobial coating indoor light activation
4.1.8 Zinc oxide nanoparticle-based coatings
4.1.8.1 Properties.
4.1.8.2 Antimicrobial activity
4.1.9 Nanocellullose (cellulose nanofibers and cellulose nanocrystals)-based coatings.
4.1.9.1 Properties
4.1.9.2 Antimicrobial activity
4.1.10 Carbon nanotube-based coatings
4.1.10.1 Properties
4.1.10.2 Antimicrobial activity
4.1.11 Fullerene-based coatings
4.1.11.1 Properties
4.1.11.2 Antimicrobial activity
4.1.12 Chitosan nanoparticle-based coatings
4.1.12.1 Properties
4.1.12.2 Wound dressings
4.1.12.3 Packaging coatings and films
4.1.12.4 Food storage
4.1.13 Copper nanoparticle-based coatings
4.1.13.1 Properties
4.1.13.2 Application in antimicrobial nanocoatings
4.2 Market revenues
4.2.1 Market revenues adjusted to pandemic demand, forecast to 2030.
4.3 Companies
4.4 Academic research

5 AIR-BORNE VIRUS FILTRATION
5.1 Nanotechnology and nanomaterials solutions (nanoparticles titanium dioxide, Polymeric nanofibers, Nanosilver, Nanocellulose, Graphene, Carbon nanotubes)
5.2 Market revenues
5.2.1 Market estimates adjusted to pandemic demand, forecast to 2025
5.3 Companies
5.4 Academic research

6 FACEMASKS AND OTHER PPE
6.1 Nanotechnology and nanomaterials solutions (Polymer nanofibers, Nanocellulose, Nanosilver, Graphene)
6.2 Market revenues
6.2.1 Market estimates adjusted to pandemic demand, forecast to 2025
6.3 Companies
6.4 Academic research

7 DRUG DELIVERY AND THERAPEUTICS
7.1 Nanotechnology and nanomaterials solutions
7.1.1 Products
7.1.2 Nanocarriers
7.1.3 Nanovaccines
7.2 Market revenues
7.2.1 Market estimates adjusted to pandemic demand, forecast to 2025
7.3 Companies
7.4 Academic research

8 REFERENCES

List of Tables
Table 1. Current Diagnostic Tests for COVID-19
Table 2. Development phases of diagnostic tests
Table 3. Emerging Diagnostic Tests for COVID-19
Table 4. Nanoparticles for diagnostic testing-Types of nanoparticles, properties and application
Table 5. Gold nanoparticle reagent suppliers list
Table 6. Carbon nanomaterials for diagnostic testing-types, properties and applications
Table 7. Global revenues for nanotech-based diagnostics and testing, 2019-2030, millions US$, adjusted for COVID-19 related demand, conservative and high estimates
Table 8. Academic research in nano-based COVID-19 diagnostics and testing.
Table 9: Anti-microbial and antiviral nanocoatings-Nanomaterials used, principles, properties and applications.
Table 10. Nanomaterials utilized in antimicrobial and antiviral nanocoatings coatings-benefits and applications.
Table 11: Properties of nanocoatings.
Table 12: Antimicrobial and antiviral nanocoatings markets and applications
Table 13: Nanomaterials used in nanocoatings and applications.
Table 14: Graphene properties relevant to application in coatings
Table 15. Bactericidal characters of graphene-based materials
Table 16. Markets and applications for antimicrobial and antiviral nanocoatings graphene nanocoatings
Table 17. Markets and applications for antimicrobial and antiviral nanosilver coatings.
Table 18. Commercial activity in antimicrobial nanosilver nanocoatings
Table 19. Antibacterial effects of ZnO NPs in different bacterial species.
Table 20. Types of carbon-based nanoparticles as antimicrobial agent, their mechanisms of action and characteristics
Table 21. Mechanism of chitosan antimicrobial action
Table 22. Global revenues for antimicrobial and antiviral nanocoatings, 2019-2030, US$, adjusted for COVID-19 related demand, conservative and high estimates.
Table 23. Global revenues for Anti-fouling & easy clean nanocoatings, 2019-2030, US$, adjusted for COVID-19 related demand, conservative and high estimates.
Table 24. Global revenues for self-cleaning (bionic) nanocoatings, 2019-2030, US$, adjusted for COVID-19 related demand, conservative and high estimates
Table 25. Global revenues for self-cleaning (photocatalytic) nanocoatings, 2019-2030, US$, adjusted for COVID-19 related demand, conservative and high estimates
Table 26. Antimicrobial, antiviral and antifungal nanocoatings research in academia
Table 27. Cellulose nanofibers (CNF) membranes
Table 28: Comparison of CNT membranes with other membrane technologies
Table 29. Nanomaterials in air-borne virus filtration-properties and applications
Table 30. Global revenues for nanotech-based air-borne virus filtration, 2019-2030, millions US$, adjusted for COVID-19 related demand, conservative and high estimates
Table 31: Oji Holdings CNF products
Table 32. Academic research in nano-based air-borne virus filtration
Table 33. Nanomaterials in facemasks and other PPE-properties and applications
Table 34. Global revenues for nanotech-based facemasks and PPE, 2019-2030, millions US$, adjusted for COVID-19 related demand, conservative and high estimates
Table 35. Academic research in nano-based facemasks and other PPE
Table 36. Applications in drug delivery and therapeutics, by nanomaterials type-properties and applications
Table 37. Nanotechnology drug products
Table 38. List of antigens delivered by using different nanocarriers
Table 39. Nanoparticle-based vaccines
Table 40. Global revenues for nano-based drug delivery and therapeutics, 2019-2030, billion US$, adjusted for COVID-19 related demand, conservative and high estimates
Table 41. Academic research in nano-based drug delivery and therapeutics to address COVD-19

List of Figures
Figure 1. Anatomy of COVID-19 Virus
Figure 2. Graphene-based sensors for health monitoring
Figure 3. Schematic of COVID-19 FET sensor incorporating graphene
Figure 4. Global revenues for nanotech-based diagnostics and testing, 2019-2030, millions US$, adjusted for COVID-19 related demand, conservative and high estimates
Figure 5. Printed graphene biosensors
Figure 6. AGILE R100 system
Figure 7. nano-screenMAG particles
Figure 8. GFET sensors.
Figure 9. DNA endonuclease-targeted CRISPR trans reporter (DETECTR) system
Figure 10. SGTi-flex COVID-19 IgM/IgG
Figure 11. Schematic of anti-viral coating using nano-actives for inactivation of any adhered virus on the surfaces
Figure 12: Graphair membrane coating
Figure 13: Antimicrobial activity of Graphene oxide (GO)
Figure 14. Nano-coated self-cleaning touchscreen
Figure 15: Hydrophobic easy-to-clean coating
Figure 16 Anti-bacterial mechanism of silver nanoparticle coating.
Figure 17: Mechanism of photocatalysis on a surface treated with TiO2 nanoparticles
Figure 18: Schematic showing the self-cleaning phenomena on superhydrophilic surface.
Figure 19: Titanium dioxide-coated glass (left) and ordinary glass (right).
Figure 20: Self-Cleaning mechanism utilizing photooxidation.
Figure 21: Schematic of photocatalytic air purifying pavement.
Figure 22: Schematic of photocatalytic water purification
Figure 23. Schematic of antibacterial activity of ZnO NPs
Figure 24: Types of nanocellulose
Figure 25. Mechanism of antimicrobial activity of carbon nanotubes
Figure 26: Fullerene schematic
Figure 27. TEM images of Burkholderia seminalis treated with (a, c) buffer (control) and (b, d) 2.0 mg/mL chitosan; (A: additional layer; B: membrane damage)
Figure 28. Global revenues for antimicrobial and antiviral nanocoatings, 2019-2030, US$, adjusted for COVID-19 related demand, conservative and high estimates
Figure 29. Global revenues for anti-fouling and easy-to-clean nanocoatings, 2019-2030, US$, adjusted for COVID-19 related demand, conservative and high estimates
Figure 30. Global revenues for self-cleaning (bionic) nanocoatings, 2019-2030, US$, adjusted for COVID-19 related demand, conservative and high estimates
Figure 31. Global revenues for self-cleaning (photocatalytic) nanocoatings, 2019-2030, US$, adjusted for COVID-19 related demand, conservative and high estimates
Figure 32. Lab tests on DSP coatings
Figure 33. GrapheneCA anti-bacterial and anti-viral coating
Figure 34. Microlyte® Matrix bandage for surgical wounds
Figure 35. Self-cleaning nanocoating applied to face masks.
Figure 36. NanoSeptic surfaces.
Figure 37. NascNanoTechnology personnel shown applying MEDICOAT to airport luggage carts
Figure 38. Basic principle of photocatalyst TiO2
Figure 39. Schematic of photocatalytic indoor air purification filter.
Figure 40. Global revenues for nanotech-based air-borne virus filtration, 2019-2030, millions US$, adjusted for COVID-19 related demand, conservative and high estimates.
Figure 41. Multi-layered cross section of CNF-nw
Figure 42: Properties of Asahi Kasei cellulose nanofiber nonwoven fabric
Figure 43: CNF nonwoven fabric
Figure 44: CNF gel..
Figure 45. CNF clear sheets
Figure 46. Graphene anti-smog mask
Figure 47. Global revenues for nanotech-based facemasks and PPE, 2019-2030, millions US$, adjusted for COVID-19 related demand, conservative and high estimates
Figure 48. FNM’s nanofiber-based respiratory face mask..
Figure 49. ReSpimask® mask
Figure 50. Schematic of different nanoparticles used for intranasal vaccination
Figure 51. Global revenues for nano-based drug delivery and therapeutics, 2019-2030, billion US$, adjusted for COVID-19 related demand, conservative and high estimates.

So are you ready for your first “printed graphene bio-sensors”? Just picked a random item from the list above.

So what I’m going to do in the upcoming updates to this article is to follow every lead I got above, and I’m going to investigate every company they report on, as per their list below. You should do it too, independently, and compare your results with mine. It’s both science and investigative journalism, the juiciest combo.

  • Abbott Laboratories
  • Advanced Materials-JTJ s.r.o.
  • Arbutus Biopharma
  • Arcturus Therapeutics
  • Bio-Fence
  • Bio-Gate AG
  • BlueWillow Biologics
  • Cardea
  • Covalon Technologies Ltd.
  • Daicel FineChem Ltd.
  • E25Bio
  • Elastrin Therapeutics Inc.
  • EnGeneIC Ltd.
  • EnvisionSQ
  • Ferrotec (USA) Corporation
  • G6 Materials
  • GrapheneCA
  • Grolltex, Inc.
  • Integricote
  • Luminex Corporation
  • Nano Came Co. Ltd.
  • NanoTouch Materials, LLC
  • NANOVIA s.r.o.
  • NitroPep
  • RESPILON Group s. r. o.
  • SITA
  • Sonovia Ltd.
  • TECH LLC
  • Toray Industries
  • Tortech Nano Fibers

A taste of the future: Luminex, on of the companies listed above, makes PCR tests and stuff like magnetic micro-beads. They’ve just been bought for almost $2B by some Italians who can afford $1000+ books.

BESIDES THE DANGERS OF NANOBOTS, THIS INDUSTRY IS AN ENVIRONMENTAL CANCER AND A TOP CO2 PRODUCER

from Straight Magazine July 20th, 2011 :

Tiny nanoparticles could be a big problem

Ian Illuminato of Friends of the Earth says consumers deserve a say in nanotech regulation. JIM THOMAS/ETC GROUP

Nanotechnology was supposed to revolutionize the world, making us healthier and producing cleaner energy. But it’s starting to look more like a nightmare.

Nanomaterials—tiny particles as little as 1/100,000 the width of a human hair—have quietly been used since the 1990s in hundreds of everyday products, everything from food to baby bottles, pills, beer cans, computer keyboards, skin creams, shampoo, and clothes.

But after years of virtually unregulated use, scientists are now starting to say the most commonly used nanoproducts could be harming our health and the environment.

One of the most widespread nanoproducts is titanium dioxide. More than 5,000 tonnes of it are produced worldwide each year for use in food, toothpaste, cosmetics, paint, and paper (as a colouring agent), in medication and vitamin capsules (as a nonmedicinal filler), and in most sunscreens (for its anti-UV properties).

In food, titanium-dioxide nanoparticles are used as a whitener and brightener in confectionary products, cheeses, and sauces. Other nanoparticles are employed in flavourings and “nutritional” additives, and to reduce fat content in “health” foods.

In the journal Cancer Research in 2009, environmental-health professor Robert Schiestl coauthored the first comprehensive study of how titanium-dioxide nanoparticles affect the genes of live animals. Mice in his study suffered DNA and chromosomal damage after drinking water with the nanoparticles for five days.

“It should be removed from food and drugs, and there’s definitely no reason for it in cosmetic products,” said cancer specialist Schiestl, who is also a professor of pathology and radiation oncology at UCLA’s school of medicine.

“The study shows effects [from the nanoparticles] on all kinds of genetic endpoints,” Schiestl told the Georgia Straight in a phone interview from his office. “All those are precursor effects of cancer. It’s a wake-up call to do something.”

After Schiestl’s study came out, he said, he started getting calls from nervous people saying they had discovered titanium dioxide was listed as a nonmedicinal ingredient in their prescription medication. “They wanted to know how to get it out,” he said. “I said, ”˜I don’t know how to get it out.’ ”

Schiestl’s study is cited by groups like Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth in their calls for a moratorium on nanomaterials in food and consumer products.

“They were thought to be safe. Our study shows a lot of harm,” Schiestl said.

Nanoparticles can be harmful because they are so tiny they can pass deep into the skin, lungs, and blood. They are made by burning or crushing regular substances like titanium, silver, or iron until they turn into an ultrafine dust, which is used as a coating on, or ingredient in, various products.

Schiestl is now studying two other common nanoparticles, zinc oxide and cadmium oxide, and he has found they also cause DNA and chromosomal damage in mice.

Yet two years after Schiestl’s first study, titanium dioxide and other nanoparticles remain virtually unregulated in Canada and the U.S. Products containing nanoparticles still don’t have to be labelled, and manufacturers don’t have to prove they are safe for health or the environment.

In fact, only a small fraction of the hundreds of nanomaterials on the market have been studied to see if they are safe.

“The public has had little or no say on this. It’s mostly industry guiding government to make sure this material isn’t regulated,” said Ian Illuminato, a nanotech expert with Friends of the Earth, speaking from his home office in Victoria.

“Consumers aren’t given the right to avoid this. We think it’s dangerous and shouldn’t be in contact with the public and the environment,” he said.

Meanwhile, the number of products using nanomaterials worldwide has shot up sixfold in just a couple of years, from 212 in 2006 to more than 1,300 in 2011, according to a report in March by the Washington, D.C.–based Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies.

Those numbers are based on self-reporting by industry, and the real numbers are thought to be much higher. A Canadian government survey in 2009 found 1,600 nanoproducts available here, according to a report in December from the ETC Group, an Ottawa-based nonprofit that studies technology.

Nanotech is worth big money. More than $250 billion of nano-enabled products were produced globally in 2009, according to Lux Research, a Boston-based technology consultancy. That figure is expected to rise 10-fold, to $2.5 trillion, by 2015.

Lux Research estimated in 2006 that one-sixth of manufactured output would be based on nanotechnology by 2014.

Nanotech already appears to be affecting people’s health. In 2009, two Chinese factory workers died and another five were seriously injured in a plant that made paint containing nanoparticles.

The seven young female workers developed lung disease and rashes on their face and arms. Nanoparticles were found deep in the workers’ lungs.

“These cases arouse concern that long-term exposure to some nanoparticles without protective measures may be related to serious damage to human lungs,” wrote Chinese medical researchers in a 2009 study on the incident in the European Respiratory Journal.

When inhaled, some types of nanoparticles have been shown to act like asbestos, inflaming lung tissue and leading to cancer. In 2009, the World Health Organization’s International Agency for Cancer Research declared titanium dioxide to be “possibly carcinogenic to humans” after studies found that inhaling it in nanoparticle form caused rats to develop lung cancer and mice to suffer organ damage.

Nanoparticles can also hurt the skin. All those nanoparticles in skin creams and sunscreens may be behind a rise in eczema rates in the developed world, according to a 2009 study in the journal Experimental Biology and Medicine. The study found that titanium-dioxide nanoparticles caused mice to develop eczema. The nanoparticles “can play a significant role in the initiation and/or progression of skin diseases”, the study said.

Schiestl said nanoparticles could also be helping to fuel a rise in the rates of some cancers. He wouldn’t make a link with any specific kind of cancer, but data from the U.S. National Cancer Institute show that kidney and renal-pelvis cancer rates rose 24 percent between 2000 and 2007 in the U.S., while the rates for melanoma of the skin went up 29 percent and thyroid cancer rose 54 percent.

Schiestl said workers who deal with nanoparticles could be the most affected. That concern prompted the International Union of Food, Farm, and Hotel Workers to call in 2007 for a moratorium on commercial uses of nanotechnology in food and agriculture.

But despite all the health risks, we may already have run out of time to determine many of nanotech’s health impacts, Schiestl said.

“Nanomaterial is so ubiquitous that it would be very difficult to do an epidemiological study because there would be no control group of people who don’t use it.”

What happens when nanoparticles get out into the environment in wastewater or when products are thrown out?

Nanosilver is the most common nanomaterial on the market. Its extraordinary antimicrobial properties have earned it a place in a huge variety of products, including baby pacifiers, toothpaste, condoms, clothes, and cutting boards.

Virginia Walker, a biology professor at Queen’s University in Kingston, Ontario, decided to study nanosilver one day after a grad student said her mother had bought a new washing machine that doused clothes with silver nanoparticles to clean them better.

It sounded intriguing, Walker recalled thinking, but what would happen if nanosilver in the laundry water wound up in the environment? “What would it do to the bacterial communities out there?” she wondered.

On a whim, Walker decided to study the question. She figured the nanosilver would probably have no impact on beneficial microbes in the environment because any toxicity would be diluted.

“I did the experiment almost as a lark, not expecting to find anything,” she said by phone. “I hoped I would not find anything.”

In fact, Walker found that nanosilver was “highly toxic” to soil bacteria. It was especially toxic to one kind of nitrogen-fixing bacterium that is important to plant growth.

“If you had anything that was sensitive to nanoparticles, the last thing you would want is to have this microbe affected,” Walker said in a phone interview from her office.

The study prompted Walker to do more studies on nanoparticles. In one study now being reviewed for publication, one of her students found that mice exposed to nanoparticles developed skeletal abnormalities.

“People should have their eyes open. There are so many different nanoparticles, and the consequences of their use could be grave. We know almost nothing about these things,” Walker said.

Other scientists have raised concerns about nanosilver too. Some clothes makers now put it in socks and shirts, promising it will help control body odour. In a 2008 study in the Washington, D.C.–based journal Environmental Science and Technology, researchers took nanosilver-laced socks and washed them in water. They found the socks released up to half of their nanosilver into the water.

“If you start releasing ionic silver, it is detrimental to all aquatic biota. Once the silver ions get into the gills of fish, it’s a pretty efficient killer,” said study coauthor Troy Benn, a graduate student at Arizona State University, in a ScienceDaily.com story in 2008.

“I’ve spoken with a lot of people who don’t necessarily know what nanotechnology is, but they are out there buying products with nanoparticles in them.”

And what about the promise that nanotech could produce cleaner energy? The idea was that nanoparticles could make solar panels more efficient, be used as fuel additives to improve gas mileage, and make lighter cars and planes.

Most of the promised efficiency gains haven’t materialized, according to a 2010 report from Friends of the Earth. And it turns out that making nanomaterial is itself a huge energy guzzler.

A kilogram of carbon nanotubes—a nanoparticle used in cancer treatment and to strengthen sports equipment—requires an estimated 167 barrels of oil to produce, the Friends of the Earth report said.

Carbon nanotubes are “one of the most energy intensive materials known to humankind”, said a 2010 report to a symposium of the U.S.–based Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

That report said many nanoproducts may remain profitable despite their high energy cost only because of enormous government subsidies to the nanotech industry—$1.6 billion from the U.S. government last year.

But despite all this, regulation of nanotech remains glacially slow. The European Parliament voted nearly unanimously to recommend that nanoproducts be banned from food in 2009. But the European Commission rejected that recommendation last year, agreeing only that it may require labels on food containing nanomaterials. It will also require labels on cosmetics containing some nanoingredients starting in 2014.

Canada and the U.S. have yet to go even that far. At Health Canada, which regulates nanotechnology, a web page dealing with nanoproducts hasn’t been amended in four years and contains outdated information.

Health Canada spokesman Stéphane Shank did not return calls.

They used to say small is beautiful. But that was before small got scary. – Straight.com

NO MEANS NO, YES MEANS NO TOO

So yeah, that’s it for now, and if you think this is not enough to prove much, you can’t be more wrong, you’re probably bathing in dangerous or lethal nanotech as you read this, but feel free to return to this link in the coming days and weeks, I will be adding more evidence as I dig it out. I have about 100 leads there, it’s going to be a long process, friends!

Until then please read this:

YES, THEY CAN VACCINATE US THROUGH NASAL TEST SWABS AND TARGET THE BRAIN (BIOHACKING P.1)

and this:

Application of Nanotechnology in the COVID-19 Pandemic

To be continued?
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Help SILVIEW.media survive and grow, please donate here, anything helps. Thank you!

! Articles can always be subject of later editing as a way of perfecting them

Graphene is the new asbestos. Plus injectable and mandatory.
The rest Of the graphene oxide story is here, if you need more background, this post is a result of that investigation

NOTE: A needed clarification solicited by some readers:
Yes, we knew of GRAPHENE COATING on masks in May, as seen below, which is horrible enough, even more so since not many followed Canada’s example in banning it.
What this article brings new is a confirmation for GRAPHENE OXYDE, which is not very different in properties and health impact, but seems to be specific to these mRNA jabs, and so we complete the new revelations on graphene oxide and vaccines from La Quinta Columna.

OOPS!

The World’s First Anti-Coronavirus Surgical Mask by Wakamono

By Dr. Priyom Bose, Ph.D. Sep 30 2020

Image Credit: Dragana Gordic/Shutterstock.com

In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was first detected in Wuhan, in China’s Hubei province. On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) acknowledged and characterized the condition as a pandemic owing to the rapid spread of the virus across the globe infecting millions of individuals. Scientists are fighting tirelessly to find out ways to curb the spread of the virus and eradicate it.

SARS-CoV-2 is regarded as highly contagious and spreads rapidly through person-to-person contact. When an infected person sneezes or coughs, their respiratory droplets can easily infect a healthy individual. Besides enforcing social distancing, common citizens are encouraged to wear face masks to prevent droplets from getting through the air and infecting others.

Despite the efficiency of N95, a respiratory protective device, to filter out 95% of particles (≥0.3 μm), surgical facemasks are single-use, expensive, and often ill-fitting, which significantly reduces their effectiveness. Nanoscience researchers have envisioned a new respirator facemask that would be highly efficient, recyclable, customizable, reusable, and have antimicrobial and antiviral properties.

Nanotechnology in the Production of Surgical Masks

Nanoparticles are extensively used for their novel properties in various fields of science and technology.

In the current pandemic situation, scientists have adopted this technology to produce the most efficient masks. Researchers have used a novel electrospinning technology in the production of nanofiber membranes. These nanofiber membranes are designed to have various regulating properties such as fiber diameter, porosity ratio, and many other microstructural factors that could be utilized to produce high-quality face masks. Researchers in Egypt have developed face masks using nanotechnology with the help of the following components:

Polylactic acid

This transparent polymeric material is derived from starch and carbohydrate. It has high elasticity and is biodegradable. Researchers found that electrospun polylactic acid membranes possess high prospects for the production of filters efficient in the isolation of environmental pollutants, such as atmospheric aerosol and submicron particulates dispersed in the air.

Despite its various biomedical applications (implant prostheses, catheters, tissue scaffolds, etc.), these polylactic membranes are brittle. Therefore, applying frequent pressure during their usage could produce cracks that would make them permeable to viral particles. However, this mechanical drawback can be fixed using other supportive nanoparticles that could impart mechanical strength, antimicrobial and antiviral properties, which are important in making face masks effective in the current pandemic situation.

Copper oxide nanoparticles

These nanoparticles have many biomedical applications, for example, infection control, as they can inhibit the growth of microorganisms (fungi, bacteria) and viruses. It has also been reported that SARS-CoV-2 has lower stability on the metallic copper surface than other materials, such as plastic or stainless steel. Therefore, the integration of copper oxide nanoparticles in a nanofibrous polymeric filtration system would significantly prevent microbial adherence onto the membrane.  

Graphene oxide nanoparticles

These nanoparticles possess exceptional properties, such as high toughness, superior electrical conductivity, biocompatibility, and antiviral and antibacterial activity. Such nanoparticles could be utilized in the production of masks.

Cellulose acetate

This is a semi-synthetic polymer derived from cellulose. It is used in ultrafiltration because of its biocompatibility, high selectivity, and low cost. It is also used in protective clothing, tissue engineering, and nanocomposite applications.

With the help of the aforesaid components, researchers in Egypt have designed a novel respirator filter mask against SARS-CoV-2. This mask is based on a disposable filter piece composed of the unwoven nanofibers comprising multilayers of a) copper oxide nanoparticles, graphene oxide nanoparticles, and polylactic acid, or b) copper oxide nanoparticles, graphene oxide nanoparticles, and cellulose acetate, with the help of electrospun technology and high-power ultrasonication. These facemasks are reusable, i.e., washable in water and could be sterilized using an ultraviolet lamp (λ = 250 nm).

SOURCE
WORKING TO GET CONFIRMATION FROM THESE GUYS TOO
SOURCE

Graphene-coated face masks: COVID-19 miracle or another health risk?

by C. Michael White, The Conversation

mask
Credit: Pixabay/CC0 Public Domain

As a COVID-19 and medical device researcher, I understand the importance of face masks to prevent the spread of the coronavirus. So I am intrigued that some mask manufacturers have begun adding graphene coatings to their face masks to inactivate the virus. Many viruses, fungi and bacteria are incapacitated by graphene in laboratory studies, including feline coronavirus.

Because SARS CoV-2, the coronavirus that causes COVID-19, can survive on the outer surface of a face mask for days, people who touch the mask and then rub their eyes, nose, or mouth may risk getting COVID-19. So these manufacturers seem to be reasoning that graphene coatings on their reusable and disposable face masks will add some anti-virus protection. But in March, the Quebec provincial government removed these masks from schools and daycare centers after Health Canada, Canada’s national public health agency, warned that inhaling the graphene could lead to asbestos-like lung damage.

Is this move warranted by the facts, or an over-reaction? To answer that question, it can help to know more about what graphene is, how it kills microbes, including the SARS-COV-2 virus, and what scientists know so far about the potential health impacts of breathing in graphene.

How does graphene damage viruses, bacteria and human cells?

Graphene is a thin but strong and conductive two-dimensional sheet of carbon atoms. There are three ways that it can help prevent the spread of microbes:

  • Microscopic graphene particles have sharp edges that mechanically damage viruses and cells as they pass by them.
  • Graphene is negatively charged with highly mobile electrons that electrostaticly trap and inactivate some viruses and cells.
  • Graphene causes cells to generate oxygen free radicals that can damage them and impairs their cellular metabolism.
Dr Joe Schwarcz explains why Canada banned graphene masks. Doesn’t say why other countries didn’t. When two governments have opposing views on a poison, one is criminally wrong and someone has to pay.

Why graphene may be linked to lung injury

Researchers have been studying the potential negative impacts of inhaling microscopic graphene on mammals. In one 2016 experiment, mice with graphene placed in their lungs experienced localized lung tissue damage, inflammation, formation of granulomas (where the body tries to wall off the graphene), and persistent lung injury, similar to what occurs when humans inhale asbestos. A different study from 2013 found that when human cells were bound to graphene, the cells were damaged.

In order to mimic human lungs, scientists have developed biological models designed to simulate the impact of high concentration aerosolized graphene—graphene in the form of a fine spray or suspension in air—on industrial workers. One such study published in March 2020 found that a lifetime of industrial exposure to graphene induced inflammation and weakened the simulated lungs’ protective barrier.

It’s important to note that these models are not perfect options for studying the dramatically lower levels of graphene inhaled from a face mask, but researchers have used them in the past to learn more about these sorts of exposures. A study from 2016 found that a small portion of aerosolized graphene nanoparticles could move down a simulated mouth and nose passages and penetrate into the lungs. A 2018 study found that brief exposure to a lower amount of aerosolized graphene did not notably damage lung cells in a model.

From my perspective as a researcher, this trio of findings suggest that a little bit of graphene in the lungs is likely OK, but a lot is dangerous.

Although it might seem obvious to compare inhaling graphene to the well-known harms of breathing in asbestos, the two substances behave differently in one key way. The body’s natural system for disposing of foreign particles cannot remove asbestos, which is why long-term exposure to asbestos can lead to the cancer mesothelioma. But in studies using mouse models to measure the impact of high dose lung exposure to graphene, the body’s natural disposal system does remove the graphene, although it occurs very slowly over 30 to 90 days.

The findings of these studies shed light on the possible health impacts of breathing in microscopic graphene in either small or large doses. However, these models don’t reflect the full complexity of human experiences. So the strength of the evidence about either the benefit of wearing a graphene mask, or the harm of inhaling microscopic graphene as a result of wearing it, is very weak.

No obvious benefit but theoretical risk

Graphene is an intriguing scientific advance that may speed up the demise of COVID-19 virus particles on a face mask. In exchange for this unknown level of added protection, there is a theoretical risk that breathing through a graphene-coated mask will liberate graphene particles that make it through the other filter layers on the mask and penetrate into the lung. If inhaled, the body may not remove these particles rapidly enough to prevent lung damage.

The health department in Quebec is erring on the side of caution. Children are at very low risk of COVID-19 mortality or hospitalization, although they may infect others, so the theoretical risk from graphene exposure is too great. However, adults at high immediate risk of harm from contracting COVID-19 may choose to accept a small theoretical risk of long-term lung damage from graphene in exchange for these potential benefits.

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Maybe one day we will beg for masks to protect ourselves from vaccines

MIT article
Our article

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I don’t know if they do it, because no independent researchers examine those swabs, but I have always pointed out that our overlords seem more concerned with testing than with vaccinating. Almost like the vaccines were the bait and tests were the switch. And now we also know they totally CAN do that.
Just follow the science below.

The respectable Mr. David Knight makes a summary of our article

UPDATE: LMAO, THIS WENT SO VIRAL VICE WAS SENT TO DEBUNK IT, SEE FOR YOURSELF, IT’S HILARIOUS!

Our comment has already been deleted, apparently, or I can’t find it anymore 😀
Attn: Gates-paid fact-checkers – Injectable computers with RFID antennas produced in 2016

UPDATE: DR. LORRAINE DAY QUOTES AND FURTHER EXPLAINS THIS VERY ARTICLE!

Share the video in higher resolution from our Bitchute or Lbry

November 3, 2020

Researchers engineer tiny machines that deliver medicine efficiently

by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

Johns Hopkins Researchers engineer tiny machines that deliver medicine efficiently
A theragripper is about the size of a speck of dust. This swab contains dozens of the tiny devices. Credit: Johns Hopkins University.

Inspired by a parasitic worm that digs its sharp teeth into its host’s intestines, Johns Hopkins researchers have designed tiny, star-shaped microdevices that can latch onto intestinal mucosa and release drugs into the body.

David Gracias, Ph.D., a professor in the Johns Hopkins University Whiting School of Engineering, and Johns Hopkins gastroenterologist Florin M. Selaru, M.D., director of the Johns Hopkins Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, led a team of researchers and biomedical engineers that designed and tested shape-changing microdevices that mimic the way the parasitic hookworm affixes itself to an organism’s intestines.

Made of metal and thin, shape-changing film and coated in a heat-sensitive paraffin wax, “theragrippers,” each roughly the size of a dust speck, potentially can carry any drug and release it gradually into the body.

The team published results of an animal study this week as the cover article in the journal Science Advances.

Gradual or extended release of a drug is a long-sought goal in medicine. Selaru explains that a problem with extended-release drugs is they often make their way entirely through the gastrointestinal tract before they’ve finished dispensing their medication.

“Normal constriction and relaxation of GI tract muscles make it impossible for extended-release drugs to stay in the intestine long enough for the patient to receive the full dose,” says Selaru, who has collaborated with Gracias for more than 10 years. “We’ve been working to solve this problem by designing these small drug carriers that can autonomously latch onto the intestinal mucosa and keep the drug load inside the GI tract for a desired duration of time.”

Researchers engineer tiny machines that deliver medicine efficiently
When an open theragripper, left, is exposed to internal body temperatures, it closes on the instestinal wall. In the gripper’s center is a space for a small dose of a drug. Credit: Johns Hopkins University

Thousands of theragrippers can be deployed in the GI tract. When the paraffin wax coating on the grippers reaches the temperature inside the body, the devices close autonomously and clamp onto the colonic wall. The closing action causes the tiny, six-pointed devices to dig into the mucosa and remain attached to the colon, where they are retained and release their medicine payloads gradually into the body. Eventually, the theragrippers lose their hold on the tissue and are cleared from the intestine via normal gastrointestinal muscular function.

Taken from the original research annexes

Gracias notes advances in the field of biomedical engineering in recent years.

“We have seen the introduction of dynamic, microfabricated smart devices that can be controlled by electrical or chemical signals,” he says. “But these grippers are so small that batteries, antennas and other components will not fit on them.”

Theragrippers, says Gracias, don’t rely on electricity, wireless signals or external controls. “Instead, they operate like small, compressed springs with a temperature-triggered coating on the devices that releases the stored energy autonomously at body temperature.”

The Johns Hopkins researchers fabricated the devices with about 6,000 theragrippers per 3-inch silicon wafer. In their animal experiments, they loaded a pain-relieving drug onto the grippers. The researchers’ studies found that the animals into which theragrippers were administered had higher concentrates of the pain reliever in their bloodstreams than did the control group. The drug stayed in the test subjects’ systems for nearly 12 hours versus two hours in the control group.

“You could put the computational power of the spaceship Voyager onto an object the size of a cell”. In 2018.
“Swarms of microscopic robots that can be injected”
Tell Melinda Gates we can inject robots and computers these days.

At this point I just need to recall our October 2020 article: FACT-CHECKERS LIE: TEST SWABS REALLY LIKELY TO GIVE YOU THE “LEAKY BRAIN”

HERE’S A VERY SIMPLE WAY TO ATTACK THE BRAIN THROUGH THE TEST SWABS

I’ve seen a report on someone who had to undergo tests almost daily and he developed brain cancer over the course of about three months. But I can’t verify it, so that’s all it’s worth.

SPOOKY FIBERS IN MAKS AND TEST SWABS? WAIT ’TIL YOU READ THE SCIENCE!

SOURCE

Aaaand the last piece of the puzzle that we needed to get the picture. We may have missed many details, but we got the core idea right:

SOURCE

“Key to our findings is the demonstration that S1 promotes loss of barrier integrity in an advanced 3D microfluidic model of the human BBB, a platform that more closely resembles the physiological conditions at this CNS interface. Evidence provided suggests that the SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins trigger a pro-inflammatory response on brain endothelial cells that may contribute to an altered state of BBB function. Together, these results are the first to show the direct impact that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein could have on brain endothelial cells; thereby offering a plausible explanation for the neurological consequences seen in COVID-19 patients.”

Report contents include:

  • Market analysis of nano-based diagnostic tests for COVID-19 including nanosensors incorporating gold nanoparticles, iron oxide nanoparticles, graphene, quantum dots, carbon quantum dots and carbon nanotubes. Market revenues adjusted to pandemic outcomes. In-depth company profiles. Companies profiled include Abbott Laboratories, Cardea, Ferrotec (USA) Corporation, E25Bio, Grolltex, Inc., Luminex Corporation etc.

More info here: A DIVERSITY OF NANOTECH 100% CONFIRMED IN COVID TESTS, MASKS, INJECTIONS AND A WIDE RANGE OF PRODUCTS

Application of Nanotechnology in the COVID-19 Pandemic

Dongki Yang1

Internationa Journal of Nanomedicine. 2021; 16: 623–649.
Published online 2021 Jan 26. 
doi: 10.2147/IJN.S296383

Intranasal Delivery Therapy

Currently, many studies are being conducted on developing a method for delivering nanoparticles into the nasal cavity as a safe and more effective countermeasure against viral infection and treatment.180 Since SARS-CoV-2 initiates infection on the mucosal surface of the eye or nasal cavity, mucosal therapy is the most important strategy for treating such infectious diseases. Delivery through the nasal cavity is not only simple and inexpensive but also non-invasive, and the NP is rapidly absorbed due to the cavity’s abundant capillary plexus and large surface area.181 The properties of the NPs, such as the surface charge, size, and shape, are important factors to be considered while optimizing the method of delivery to the nasal cavity and play a critical role in effective and safe treatment.182 Studies have been conducted using small animals to evaluate the system that is delivered to the lungs by administering NPs to the nasal cavity. Therefore, findings of these animal studies cannot be easily generalized to humans. To date, three types of NPs (organic, inorganic, and virus-like NPs) have been designed with delivery capabilities that are suitable for therapeutic purposes, which can also be administered intranasally for effective delivery.

Nasal-nanotechnology: revolution for efficient therapeutics delivery

Amrish Kumar 1Aditya Nath Pandey 1Sunil Kumar Jain 1

Drug Delivery 2016;  Epub 2014 Jun 5.

Abstract

Context: In recent years, nanotechnology-based delivery systems have gained interest to overcome the problems of restricted absorption of therapeutic agents from the nasal cavity, depending upon the physicochemical properties of the drug and physiological properties of the human nose.

Objective: The well-tolerated and non-invasive nasal drug delivery when combined with the nanotechnology-based novel formulations and carriers, opens the way for the effective systemic and brain targeting delivery of various therapeutic agents. To accomplish competent drug delivery, it is imperative to recognize the interactions among the nanomaterials and the nasal biological environment, targeting cell-surface receptors, drug release, multiple drug administration, stability of therapeutic agents and molecular mechanisms of cell signaling involved in patho-biology of the disease under consideration.

Methods: Quite a few systems have been successfully formulated using nanomaterials for intranasal (IN) delivery. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), chitosan, polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and PLGA-based nanosystems have also been studied in vitro and in vivo for the delivery of several therapeutic agents which shown promising concentrations in the brain after nasal administration.

Results and conclusion: The use of nanomaterials including peptide-based nanotubes and nanogels (NGs) for vaccine delivery via nasal route is a new approach to control the disease progression. In this review, the recent developments in nanotechnology utilized for nasal drug delivery have been discussed.

Keywords: Intranasal; nano-delivery systems; nasal vaccination; non-invasive; nose-to-brain delivery.

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Inhaled nanoparticles–a current review

Wei Yang 1Jay I PetersRobert O Williams 3rd

International Journal of Pharmaceutics 2008 May 22;

Abstract

The field of nanotechnology may hold the promise of significant improvements in the health and well being of patients, as well as in manufacturing technologies. The knowledge of this impact of nanomaterials on public health is limited so far. This paper briefly reviews the unique size-controlled properties of nanomaterials, their disposition in the body after inhalation, and the factors influencing the fate of inhaled nanomaterials. The physiology of the lung makes it an ideal target organ for non-invasive local and systemic drug delivery, especially for protein and poorly water-soluble drugs that have low oral bioavailability via oral administration. The potential application of pulmonary drug delivery of nanoparticles to the lungs, specifically in context of published results reported on nanomaterials in environmental epidemiology and toxicology is reviewed in this paper.


Nanoparticles for nasal vaccination

Noemi Csaba 1Marcos Garcia-FuentesMaria Jose Alonso

Advanced Drug Delivery Review. 
2009 Feb 27; doi: 10.1016/j.addr.2008.09.005. Epub 2008 Dec 13.

Abstract

The great interest in mucosal vaccine delivery arises from the fact that mucosal surfaces represent the major site of entry for many pathogens. Among other mucosal sites, nasal delivery is especially attractive for immunization, as the nasal epithelium is characterized by relatively high permeability, low enzymatic activity and by the presence of an important number of immunocompetent cells. In addition to these advantageous characteristics, the nasal route could offer simplified and more cost-effective protocols for vaccination with improved patient compliance. The use of nanocarriers provides a suitable way for the nasal delivery of antigenic molecules. Besides improved protection and facilitated transport of the antigen, nanoparticulate delivery systems could also provide more effective antigen recognition by immune cells. These represent key factors in the optimal processing and presentation of the antigen, and therefore in the subsequent development of a suitable immune response. In this sense, the design of optimized vaccine nanocarriers offers a promising way for nasal mucosal vaccination.

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Check the follow ups in the Bio-hacking trilogy:

RNA MODIFICATION USED TO ALTER DNA, BRAIN FUNCTIONS AND BEHAVIOR
Part 3 went straight to video:
THE WALKING SERVERS. DON’T BE ONE, LEARN ABOUT DNA STORAGE, DNA PRIVACY AND BIOHACKING – DOCUMENTARY

Epub 2008 Dec 13.

Nanoparticles for nasal vaccination

Noemi Csaba  1 Marcos Garcia-FuentesMaria Jose Alonso

Abstract

The great interest in mucosal vaccine delivery arises from the fact that mucosal surfaces represent the major site of entry for many pathogens. Among other mucosal sites, nasal delivery is especially attractive for immunization, as the nasal epithelium is characterized by relatively high permeability, low enzymatic activity and by the presence of an important number of immunocompetent cells. In addition to these advantageous characteristics, the nasal route could offer simplified and more cost-effective protocols for vaccination with improved patient compliance. The use of nanocarriers provides a suitable way for the nasal delivery of antigenic molecules. Besides improved protection and facilitated transport of the antigen, nanoparticulate delivery systems could also provide more effective antigen recognition by immune cells. These represent key factors in the optimal processing and presentation of the antigen, and therefore in the subsequent development of a suitable immune response. In this sense, the design of optimized vaccine nanocarriers offers a promising way for nasal mucosal vaccination.


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2015 called…

PubMed, 2015 Jun 9.:

Nanoneurotherapeutics approach intended for direct nose to brain delivery

Shadab Md  1 Gulam Mustafa  2   3 Sanjula Baboota  3 Javed Ali  3 Affiliations Expand

Abstract

Context: Brain disorders remain the world’s leading cause of disability, and account for more hospitalizations and prolonged care than almost all other diseases combined. The majority of drugs, proteins and peptides do not readily permeate into brain due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), thus impeding treatment of these conditions.

Objective: Attention has turned to developing novel and effective delivery systems to provide good bioavailability in the brain.

Methods: Intranasal administration is a non-invasive method of drug delivery that may bypass the BBB, allowing therapeutic substances direct access to the brain. However, intranasal administration produces quite low drug concentrations in the brain due limited nasal mucosal permeability and the harsh nasal cavity environment. Pre-clinical studies using encapsulation of drugs in nanoparticulate systems improved the nose to brain targeting and bioavailability in brain. However, the toxic effects of nanoparticles on brain function are unknown.

Result and conclusion: This review highlights the understanding of several brain diseases and the important pathophysiological mechanisms involved. The review discusses the role of nanotherapeutics in treating brain disorders via nose to brain delivery, the mechanisms of drug absorption across nasal mucosa to the brain, strategies to overcome the blood brain barrier, nanoformulation strategies for enhanced brain targeting via nasal route and neurotoxicity issues of nanoparticles.

Epub 2013 Oct 16.

Nanoemulsion-based intranasal drug delivery system of saquinavir mesylate for brain targeting

Hitendra S Mahajan  1 Milind S MahajanPankaj P NerkarAnshuman Agrawal Affiliations Expand

Abstract

The central nervous system (CNS) is an immunological privileged sanctuary site-providing reservoir for HIV-1 virus. Current anti-HIV drugs, although effective in reducing plasma viral levels, cannot eradicate the virus completely from the body. The low permeability of anti-HIV drugs across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) leads to insufficient delivery. Therefore, developing a novel approaches enhancing the CNS delivery of anti-HIV drugs are required for the treatment of neuro-AIDS. The aim of this study was to develop intranasal nanoemulsion (NE) for enhanced bioavailability and CNS targeting of saquinavir mesylate (SQVM). SQVM is a protease inhibitor which is a poorly soluble drug widely used as antiretroviral drug, with oral bioavailability is about 4%. The spontaneous emulsification method was used to prepare drug-loaded o/w nanoemulsion, which was characterized by droplet size, zeta potential, pH, drug content. Moreover, ex-vivo permeation studies were performed using sheep nasal mucosa. The optimized NE showed a significant increase in drug permeation rate compared to the plain drug suspension (PDS). Cilia toxicity study on sheep nasal mucosa showed no significant adverse effect of SQVM-loaded NE. Results of in vivo biodistribution studies show higher drug concentration in brain after intranasal administration of NE than intravenous delivered PDS. The higher percentage of drug targeting efficiency (% DTE) and nose-to-brain drug direct transport percentage (% DTP) for optimized NE indicated effective CNS targeting of SQVM via intranasal route. Gamma scintigraphy imaging of the rat brain conclusively demonstrated transport of drug in the CNS at larger extent after intranasal administration as NE.

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PubMed Epub, 2016 Jun 28:

Hydrogel nanoparticles and nanocomposites for nasal drug/vaccine delivery

Sara Salatin  1   2 Jaleh Barar  1   3 Mohammad Barzegar-Jalali  3 Khosro Adibkia  3   4 Mitra Alami Milani  2   4 Mitra Jelvehgari  5   6 Affiliations Expand

Affiliations

  • 1 Research Center for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Tabriz University of Medical Science, Tabriz, Iran.
  • 2 Student Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Science, Tabriz, Iran.
  • 3 Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Mailbox 51664, Tabriz, Iran.
  • 4 Drug Applied Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
  • 5 Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Mailbox 51664, Tabriz, Iran. mitra_jelvehgari@yahoo.com.
  • 6 Drug Applied Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. mitra_jelvehgari@yahoo.com.

Abstract

Over the past few years, nasal drug delivery has attracted more and more attentions, and been recognized as the most promising alternative route for the systemic medication of drugs limited to intravenous administration. Many experiments in animal models have shown that nanoscale carriers have the ability to enhance the nasal delivery of peptide/protein drugs and vaccines compared to the conventional drug solution formulations. However, the rapid mucociliary clearance of the drug-loaded nanoparticles can cause a reduction in bioavailability percentage after intranasal administration. Thus, research efforts have considerably been directed towards the development of hydrogel nanosystems which have mucoadhesive properties in order to maximize the residence time, and hence increase the period of contact with the nasal mucosa and enhance the drug absorption. It is most certain that the high viscosity of hydrogel-based nanosystems can efficiently offer this mucoadhesive property. This update review discusses the possible benefits of using hydrogel polymer-based nanoparticles and hydrogel nanocomposites for drug/vaccine delivery through the intranasal administration.

Keywords: Brain; Hydrogel; Nanoparticles; Nasal delivery; Vaccine.

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To be continued?
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