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Evidence for a connection between coronavirus disease-19 and exposure to radiofrequency radiation from wireless communications including 5G

Beverly Rubik 1 , 2 , * and Robert R. Brown 3
Author information

Journal of Clinical and Translational Research. 2021 Oct 26; 7(5): 666–681.

Abstract

Background and Aim:

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) public health policy has focused on the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus and its effects on human health while environmental factors have been largely ignored. In considering the epidemiological triad (agent-host-environment) applicable to all disease, we investigated a possible environmental factor in the COVID-19 pandemic: ambient radiofrequency radiation from wireless communication systems including microwaves and millimeter waves. SARS-CoV-2, the virus that caused the COVID-19 pandemic, surfaced in Wuhan, China shortly after the implementation of city-wide (fifth generation [5G] of wireless communications radiation [WCR]), and rapidly spread globally, initially demonstrating a statistical correlation to international communities with recently established 5G networks. In this study, we examined the peer-reviewed scientific literature on the detrimental bioeffects of WCR and identified several mechanisms by which WCR may have contributed to the COVID-19 pandemic as a toxic environmental cofactor. By crossing boundaries between the disciplines of biophysics and pathophysiology, we present evidence that WCR may: (1) cause morphologic changes in erythrocytes including echinocyte and rouleaux formation that can contribute to hypercoagulation; (2) impair microcirculation and reduce erythrocyte and hemoglobin levels exacerbating hypoxia; (3) amplify immune system dysfunction, including immunosuppression, autoimmunity, and hyperinflammation; (4) increase cellular oxidative stress and the production of free radicals resulting in vascular injury and organ damage; (5) increase intracellular Ca2+ essential for viral entry, replication, and release, in addition to promoting pro-inflammatory pathways; and (6) worsen heart arrhythmias and cardiac disorders.

Relevance for Patients:

In short, WCR has become a ubiquitous environmental stressor that we propose may have contributed to adverse health outcomes of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 and increased the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, we recommend that all people, particularly those suffering from SARS-CoV-2 infection, reduce their exposure to WCR as much as reasonably achievable until further research better clarifies the systemic health effects associated with chronic WCR exposure.

1. Introduction

1.1. Background

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been the focus of international public health policy since 2020. Despite unprecedented public health protocols to quell the pandemic, the number of COVID-19 cases continues to rise. We propose a reassessment of our public health strategies.

According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the simplest model of disease causation is the epidemiological triad consisting of three interactive factors: the agent (pathogen), the environment, and the health status of the host [1]. Extensive research is being done on the agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Risk factors that make a host more likely to succumb to the disease have been elucidated. However, environmental factors have not been sufficiently explored. In this paper, we investigated the role of wireless communication radiation (WCR), a widespread environmental stressor.

We explore the scientific evidence suggesting a possible relationship between COVID-19 and radiofrequency radiation related to wireless communications technology including fifth generation (5G) of wireless communications technology, henceforth referred to as WCR. WCR has already been recognized as a form of environmental pollution and physiological stressor [2]. Assessing the potentially detrimental health effects of WCR may be crucial to develop an effective, rational public health policy that may help expedite eradication of the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, because we are on the verge of worldwide 5G deployment, it is critical to consider the possible damaging health effects of WCR before the public is potentially harmed.

5G is a protocol that will use high frequency bands and extensive bandwidths of the electromagnetic spectrum in the vast radiofrequency range from 600 MHz to nearly 100 GHz, which includes millimeter waves (>20 GHz), in addition to the currently used third generation (3G) and fourth generation (4G) long-term evolution (LTE) microwave bands. 5G frequency spectrum allocations differ from country to country. Focused pulsed beams of radiation will emit from new base stations and phased array antennas placed close to buildings whenever persons access the 5G network. Because these high frequencies are strongly absorbed by the atmosphere and especially during rain, a transmitter’s range is limited to 300 meters. Therefore, 5G requires base stations and antennas to be much more closely spaced than previous generations. Plus, satellites in space will emit 5G bands globally to create a wireless worldwide web. The new system therefore requires significant densification of 4G infrastructure as well as new 5G antennas that may dramatically increase the population’s WCR exposure both inside structures and outdoors. Approximately 100,000 emitting satellites are planned to be launched into orbit. This infrastructure will significantly alter the world’s electromagnetic environment to unprecedented levels and may cause unknown consequences to the entire biosphere, including humans. The new infrastructure will service the new 5G devices, including 5G mobile phones, routers, computers, tablets, self-driving vehicles, machine-to-machine communications, and the Internet of Things.

The global industry standard for 5G is set by the 3G Partnership Project (3GPP), which is an umbrella term for several organizations developing standard protocols for mobile telecommunications. The 5G standard specifies all key aspects of the technology, including frequency spectrum allocation, beam-forming, beam steering, multiplexing multiple in, multiple out schemes, as well as modulation schemes, among others. 5G will utilize from 64 to 256 antennas at short distances to serve virtually simultaneously a large number of devices within a cell. The latest finalized 5G standard, Release 16, is codified in the 3GPP published Technical Report TR 21.916 and may be downloaded from the 3GPP server at https://www.3gpp.org/specifications. Engineers claim that 5G will offer performance up to 10 times that of current 4G networks [3].

COVID-19 began in Wuhan, China in December 2019, shortly after city-wide 5G had “gone live,” that is, become an operational system, on October 31, 2019. COVID-19 outbreaks soon followed in other areas where 5G had also been at least partially implemented, including South Korea, Northern Italy, New York City, Seattle, and Southern California. In May 2020, Mordachev [4] reported a statistically significant correlation between the intensity of radiofrequency radiation and the mortality from SARS-CoV-2 in 31 countries throughout the world. During the first pandemic wave in the United States, COVID-19 attributed cases and deaths were statistically higher in states and major cities with 5G infrastructure as compared with states and cities that did not yet have this technology [5].

There is a large body of peer reviewed literature, since before World War II, on the biological effects of WCR that impact many aspects of our health. In examining this literature, we found intersections between the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 and detrimental bioeffects of WCR exposure. Here, we present the evidence suggesting that WCR has been a possible contributing factor exacerbating COVID-19.

1.2. Overview on COVID-19

The clinical presentation of COVID-19 has proven to be highly variable, with a wide range of symptoms and variability from case to case. According to the CDC, early disease symptoms may include sore throat, headache, fever, cough, chills, among others. More severe symptoms including shortness of breath, high fever, and severe fatigue may occur in a later stage. The neurological sequela of taste and smell loss has also been described.

Ing et al. [6] determined 80% of those affected have mild symptoms or none, but older populations and those with comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity, have a greater risk for severe disease [7]. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can rapidly occur [8] and cause severe shortness of breath as endothelial cells lining blood vessels and epithelial cells lining airways lose their integrity, and protein rich fluid leaks into adjacent air sacs. COVID-19 can cause insufficient oxygen levels (hypoxia) that have been seen in up to 80% of intensive care unit (ICU) patients [9] exhibiting respiratory distress. Decreased oxygenation and elevated carbon dioxide levels in patients’ blood have been observed, although the etiology for these findings remains unclear.

Massive oxidative damage to the lungs has been observed in areas of airspace opacification documented on chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia [10]. This cellular stress may indicate a biochemical rather than a viral etiology [11].

Because disseminated virus can attach itself to cells containing an angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor; it can spread and damage organs and soft tissues throughout the body, including the lungs, heart, intestines, kidneys, blood vessels, fat, testes, and ovaries, among others. The disease can increase systemic inflammation and induce a hypercoagulable state. Without anticoagulation, intravascular blood clots can be devastating [12].

In COVID-19 patients referred to as “long-haulers,” symptoms can wax and wane for months [13]. Shortness of breath, fatigue, joint pain, and chest pain can become persistent symptoms. Post-infectious brain fog, cardiac arrhythmia, and new onset hypertension have also been described. Long-term chronic complications of COVID-19 are being defined as epidemiological data are collected over time.

As our understanding of COVID-19 continues to evolve, environmental factors, particularly those of wireless communication electromagnetic fields, remain unexplored variables that may be contributing to the disease including its severity in some patients. Next, we summarize the bioeffects of WCR exposure from the peer reviewed scientific literature published over decades.

1.3. Overview on bioeffects of WCR exposure

Organisms are electrochemical beings. Low-level WCR from devices, including mobile telephony base antennas, wireless network protocols utilized for the local networking of devices and internet access, trademarked as Wi-Fi (officially IEEE 802.11b Direct Sequence protocol; IEEE, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) by the Wi-Fi alliance, and mobile phones, among others, may disrupt regulation of numerous physiological functions. Non-thermal bioeffects (below the power density that causes tissue heating) from very low-level WCR exposure have been reported in numerous peer-reviewed scientific publications at power densities below the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) exposure guidelines [14]. Low-level WCR has been found to impact the organism at all levels of organization, from the molecular to the cellular, physiological, behavioral, and psychological levels. Moreover, it has been shown to cause systemic detrimental health effects including increased cancer risk [15], endocrine changes [16], increased free radical production [17], deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage [18], changes to the reproductive system [19], learning and memory defects [20], and neurological disorders [21]. Having evolved within Earth’s extremely low-level natural radiofrequency background, organisms lack the ability to adapt to heightened levels of unnatural radiation of wireless communications technology with digital modulation that includes short intense pulses (bursts).

The peer-reviewed world scientific literature has documented evidence for detrimental bioeffects from WCR exposure including 5G frequencies over several decades. The Soviet and Eastern European literature from 1960 to 1970s demonstrates significant biological effects, even at exposure levels more than 1000 times below 1 mW/cm2, the current guideline for maximum public exposure in the US. Eastern studies on animal and human subjects were performed at low exposure levels (<1 mW/cm2) for long durations (typically months). Adverse bioeffects from WCR exposure levels below 0.001 mW/cm2 have also been documented in the Western literature. Damage to human sperm viability including DNA fragmentation by internet-connected laptop computers at power densities from 0.0005 to 0.001 mW/cm2 has been reported [22]. Chronic human exposure to 0.000006 – 0.00001 mW/cm2 produced significant changes in human stress hormones following a mobile phone base station installation [23]. Human exposures to cell phone radiation at 0.00001 – 0.00005 mW/cm2 resulted in complaints of headache, neurological problems, sleep problems, and concentration problems, corresponding to “microwave sickness” [24,25]. The effects of WCR on prenatal development in mice placed near an “antenna park” exposed to power densities from 0.000168 to 0.001053 mW/cm2 showed a progressive decrease in the number of newborns and ended in irreversible infertility [26]. Most US research has been performed over short durations of weeks or less. In recent years, there have been few long-term studies on animals or humans.

Illness from WCR exposure has been documented since the early use of radar. Prolonged exposure to microwaves and millimeter waves from radar was associated with various disorders termed “radio-wave sickness” decades ago by Russian scientists. A wide variety of bioeffects from nonthermal power densities of WCR were reported by Soviet research groups since the 1960s. A bibliography of over 3700 references on the reported biological effects in the world scientific literature was published in 1972 (revised 1976) by the US Naval Medical Research Institute [27,28]. Several relevant Russian studies are summarized as follows. Research on Escherichia coli bacteria cultures show power density windows for microwave resonance effects for 51.755 GHz stimulation of bacterial growth, observed at extremely low power densities of 10−13 mW/cm2 [29], illustrating an extremely low level bioeffect. More recently Russian studies confirmed earlier results of Soviet research groups on the effects of 2.45 GHz at 0.5 mW/cm2 on rats (30 days exposure for 7 h/day), demonstrating the formation of antibodies to the brain (autoimmune response) and stress reactions [30]. In a long-term (1 – 4 year) study comparing children who use mobile phones to a control group, functional changes, including greater fatigue, decreased voluntary attention, and weakening of semantic memory, among other adverse psychophysiological changes, were reported [31]. Key Russian research reports that underlie the scientific basis for Soviet and Russian WCR exposure guidelines to protect the public, which are much lower than the US guidelines, have been summarized [32].

By comparison to the exposure levels employed in these studies, we measured the ambient level of WCR from 100 MHz to 8 GHz in downtown San Francisco, California in December, 2020, and found an average power density of 0.0002 mW/cm2. This level is from the superposition of multiple WCR devices. It is approximately 2 × 1010 times above the natural background.

Pulsed radio-frequency radiation such as WCR exhibits substantially different bioeffects, both qualitatively and quantitatively (generally more pronounced) compared to continuous waves at similar time-averaged power densities [3336]. The specific interaction mechanisms are not well understood. All types of wireless communications employ extremely low frequency (ELFs) in the modulation of the radiofrequency carrier signals, typically pulses to increase the capacity of information transmitted. This combination of radiofrequency radiation with ELF modulation(s) is generally more bioactive, as it is surmised that organisms cannot readily adapt to such rapidly changing wave forms [3740]. Therefore, the presence of ELF components of radiofrequency waves from pulsing or other modulations must be considered in studies on the bioeffects of WCR. Unfortunately, the reporting of such modulations has been unreliable, especially in older studies [41].

The BioInitiative Report [42], authored by 29 experts from ten countries, and updated in 2020, provides a scholarly contemporary summary of the literature on the bioeffects and health consequences from WCR exposure, including a compendium of supporting research. Recent reviews have been published [4346]. Two comprehensive reviews on the bioeffects of millimeter waves report that even short-term exposures produce marked bioeffects [47,48].Go to:

2. Methods

An ongoing literature study of the unfolding pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 was performed. To investigate a possible connection to bioeffects from WCR exposure, we examined over 250 peer-reviewed research reports from 1969 to 2021, including reviews and studies on cells, animals, and humans. We included the world literature in English and Russian reports translated to English, on radio frequencies from 600 MHz to 90 GHz, the carrier wave spectrum of WCR (2G to 5G inclusive), with particular emphasis on nonthermal, low power densities (<1 mW/cm2), and long-term exposures. The following search terms were used in queries in MEDLINE® and the Defense Technical Information Center (https://discover.dtic.mil) to find relevant study reports: radiofrequency radiation, microwave, millimeter wave, radar, MHz, GHz, blood, red blood cell, erythrocyte, hemoglobin, hemodynamic, oxygen, hypoxia, vascular, inflammation, pro-inflammatory, immune, lymphocyte, T cell, cytokine, intracellular calcium, sympathetic function, arrhythmia, heart, cardiovascular, oxidative stress, glutathione, reactive oxygen species (ROS), COVID-19, virus, and SARS-CoV-2. Occupational studies on WCR exposed workers were included in the study. Our approach is akin to Literature-Related Discovery, in which two concepts that have heretofore not been linked are explored in the literature searches to look for linkage(s) to produce novel, interesting, plausible, and intelligible knowledge, that is, potential discovery [49]. From analysis of these studies in comparison with new information unfolding on the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2, we identified several ways in which adverse bioeffects of WCR exposure intersect with COVID-19 manifestations and organized our findings into five categories.Go to:

3. Results

Table 1 lists the manifestations common to COVID-19 including disease progression and the corresponding adverse bioeffects from WCR exposure. Although these effects are delineated into categories — blood changes, oxidative stress, immune system disruption and activation, increased intracellular calcium (Ca2+), and cardiac effects — it must be emphasized that these effects are not independent of each other. For example, blood clotting and inflammation have overlapping mechanisms, and oxidative stress is implicated in erythrocyte morphological changes as well as in hypercoagulation, inflammation, and organ damage.

Table 1

Bioeffects of Wireless Communication Radiation (WCR) exposure in relation to COVID-19 manifestations and their progression

Wireless communications radiation (WCR) exposure bioeffectsCOVID-19 manifestations
Blood changes
 Short-term: rouleaux, echinocytes
 Long-term: reduced blood clotting time, reduced hemoglobin, hemodynamic disorders
Blood changes
 Rouleaux, echinocytes
 Hemoglobin effects; vascular effects
 →Reduced hemoglobin in severe disease; autoimmune hemolytic anemia; hypoxemia and hypoxia
 →Endothelial injury; impaired microcirculation; hypercoagulation; disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC); pulmonary embolism; stroke
Oxidative stress
 Glutathione level decrease; free radicals and lipid peroxide increase; superoxide dismutase activity decrease; oxidative injury in tissues and organs
Oxidative stress
 Glutathione level decrease; free radical increase and damage; apoptosis→Oxidative injury; organ damage in severe disease
Immune system disruption and activation
 Immune suppression in some studies; immune hyperactivation in other studies
 Long-term: suppression of T-lymphocytes; inflammatory biomarkers increased; autoimmunity; organ injury
Immune system disruption and activation
 Decreased production of T-lymphocytes; elevated inflammatory biomarkers.
 →Immune hyperactivation and inflammation; cytokine storm in severe disease; cytokine-induced hypo-perfusion with resulting hypoxia; organ injury; organ failure
Increased intracellular calcium
 From activation of voltage-gated calcium channels on cell membranes, with numerous secondary effects
Increased intracellular calcium
 →Increased virus entry, replication, and release
 →Increased NF-κB, pro-inflammatory processes, coagulation, and thrombosis
Cardiac effects
 Up-regulation of sympathetic nervous system; palpitations and arrhythmias
Cardiac effects
 Arrhythmias
 →Myocarditis; myocardial ischemia; cardiac injury; cardiac failure

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Supportive evidence including study details and citations are provided in the text under each subject heading, i.e., blood changes, oxidative stress, etc.

3.1. Blood changes

WCR exposure can cause morphologic changes in blood readily seen through phase contrast or dark-field microscopy of live peripheral blood samples. In 2013, Havas observed erythrocyte aggregation including rouleaux (rolls of stacked red blood cells) in live peripheral blood samples following 10 min human exposure to a 2.4 GHz cordless phone [50]. Although not peer reviewed, one of us (Rubik) investigated the effect of 4G LTE mobile phone radiation on the peripheral blood of ten human subjects, each of whom had been exposed to cell phone radiation for two consecutive 45-min intervals [51]. Two types of effects were observed: increased stickiness and clumping of red blood cells with rouleaux formation, and subsequent formation of echinocytes (spiky red blood cells). Red blood cell clumping and aggregation are known to be actively involved in blood clotting [52]. The prevalence of this phenomenon on exposure to WCR in the human population has not yet been determined. Larger controlled studies should be performed to further investigate this phenomenon.

Similar red blood cell changes have been described in peripheral blood of COVID-19 patients [53]. Rouleaux formation has been observed in 1/3 of COVID-19 patients, whereas spherocytes and echinocyte formation is more variable. Spike protein engagement with ACE2 receptors on cells lining the blood vessels can lead to endothelial damage, even when isolated [54]. Rouleaux formation, particularly in the setting of underlying endothelial damage, can clog the microcirculation, impeding oxygen transport, contributing to hypoxia, and increasing the risk of thrombosis [52]. Thrombogenesis associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection may also be caused by direct viral binding to ACE2 receptors on platelets [55].

Additional blood effects have been observed in both humans and animals exposed to WCR. In 1977, a Russian study reported that rodents irradiated with 5 – 8 mm waves (60 – 37 GHz) at 1 mW/cm2 for 15 min/day over 60 days developed hemodynamic disorders, suppressed red blood cell formation, reduced hemoglobin, and an inhibition of oxygen utilization (oxidative phosphorylation by the mitochondria) [56]. In 1978, a 3-year Russian study on 72 engineers exposed to millimeter wave generators emitting at 1 mW/cm2 or less showed a decrease in their hemoglobin levels and red blood cell counts, and a tendency toward hypercoagulation, whereas a control group showed no changes [57]. Such deleterious hematologic effects from WCR exposure may also contribute to the development of hypoxia and blood clotting observed in COVID-19 patients.

It has been proposed that the SARS-CoV-2 virus attacks erythrocytes and causes degradation of hemoglobin [11]. Viral proteins may attack the 1-beta chain of hemoglobin and capture the porphyrin, along with other proteins from the virus catalyzing the dissociation of iron from heme [58]. In principle this would reduce the number of functional erythrocytes and cause the release of free iron ions that could cause oxidative stress, tissue damage, and hypoxia. With hemoglobin partially destroyed and lung tissue damaged by inflammation, patients would be less able to exchange carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2), and would become oxygen depleted. In fact, some COVID-19 patients show reduced hemoglobin levels, measuring 7.1 g/L and even as low as 5.9 g/L in severe cases [59]. Clinical studies of almost 100 patients from Wuhan revealed that the hemoglobin levels in the blood of most patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 are significantly lowered resulting in compromised delivery of oxygen to tissues and organs [60]. In a meta-analysis of four studies with a total of 1210 patients and 224 with severe disease, hemoglobin values were reduced in COVID-19 patients with severe disease compared to those with milder forms [59]. In another study on 601 COVID-19 patients, 14.7% of anemic COVID-19 ICU patients and 9% of non-ICU COVID-19 patients had autoimmune hemolytic anemia [61]. In patients with severe COVID-19 disease, decreased hemoglobin along with elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, albumin [62], serum ferritin [63], and low oxygen saturation [64] provide additional support for this hypothesis. In addition, packed red blood cell transfusion may promote recovery of COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory failure [65].

In short, both WCR exposure and COVID-19 may cause deleterious effects on red blood cells and reduced hemoglobin levels contributing to hypoxia in COVID-19. Endothelial injury may further contribute to hypoxia and many of the vascular complications seen in COVID-19 [66] that are discussed in the next section.

3.2. Oxidative stress

Oxidative stress is a non-specific pathological condition reflecting an imbalance between an increased production of ROS and an inability of the organism to detoxify the ROS or to repair the damage they cause to biomolecules and tissues [67]. Oxidative stress can disrupt cell signaling, cause the formation of stress proteins, and generate highly reactive free radicals, which can cause DNA and cell membrane damage.

SARS-CoV-2 inhibits intrinsic pathways designed to reduce ROS levels, thereby increasing morbidity. Immune dysregulation, that is, the upregulation of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) [68] and suppression of interferon (IFN) α and IFN β [69] have been identified in the cytokine storm accompanying severe COVID-19 infections and generates oxidative stress [10]. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction may further perpetuate the cytokine storm, worsening tissue damage, and increasing the risk of severe illness and death.

Similarly low-level WCR generates ROS in cells that cause oxidative damage. In fact, oxidative stress is considered to be one of the primary mechanisms in which WCR exposure causes cellular damage. Among 100 currently available peer-reviewed studies investigating oxidative effects of low-intensity WCR, 93 of these studies confirmed that WCR induces oxidative effects in biological systems [17]. WCR is an oxidative agent with a high pathogenic potential especially when exposure is continuous [70].

Oxidative stress is also an accepted mechanism causing endothelial damage [71]. This may manifest in patients with severe COVID-19 in addition to increasing the risk for blood clot formation and worsening hypoxemia [10]. Low levels of glutathione, the master antioxidant, have been observed in a small group of COVID-19 patients, with the lowest level found in the most severe cases [72]. The finding of low glutathione levels in these patients further supports oxidative stress as a component of this disease [72]. In fact, glutathione, the major source of sulfhydryl-based antioxidant activity in the human body, may be pivotal in COVID-19 [73]. Glutathione deficiency has been proposed as the most likely cause of serious manifestations in COVID-19 [72]. The most common co-morbidities, hypertension [74]; obesity [75]; diabetes [76]; and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [74] support the concept that pre-existing conditions causing low levels of glutathione may work synergistically to create the “perfect storm” for both the respiratory and vascular complications of severe infection. Another paper citing two cases of COVID-19 pneumonia treated successfully with intravenous glutathione also supports this hypothesis [77].

Many studies report oxidative stress in humans exposed to WCR. Peraica et al. [78] found diminished blood levels of glutathione in workers exposed to WCR from radar equipment (0.01 mW/cm2 – 10 mW/cm2; 1.5 – 10.9 GHz). Garaj-Vrhovac et al. [79] studied bioeffects following exposure to non-thermal pulsed microwaves from marine radar (3 GHz, 5.5 GHz, and 9.4 GHz) and reported reduced glutathione levels and increased malondialdehyde (marker for oxidative stress) in an occupationally exposed group [79]. Blood plasma of individuals residing near mobile phone base stations showed significantly reduced glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase levels over unexposed controls [80]. In a study on human exposure to WCR from mobile phones, increased blood levels of lipid peroxide were reported, while enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in the red blood cells decreased, indicating oxidative stress [81].

In a study on rats exposed to 2450 MHz (wireless router frequency), oxidative stress was implicated in causing red blood cell lysis (hemolysis) [82]. In another study, rats exposed to 945 MHz (base station frequency) at 0.367 mW/cm2 for 7 h/day, over 8 days, demonstrated low glutathione levels and increased malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase enzyme activity, hallmarks for oxidative stress [83]. In a long-term controlled study on rats exposed to 900 MHz (mobile phone frequency) at 0.0782 mW/cm2 for 2 h/day for 10 months, there was a significant increase in malondialdehyde and total oxidant status over controls [84]. In another long-term controlled study on rats exposed to two mobile phone frequencies, 1800 MHz and 2100 MHz, at power densities 0.04 – 0.127 mW/cm2 for 2 h/day over 7 months, significant alterations in oxidant-antioxidant parameters, DNA strand breaks, and oxidative DNA damage were found [85].

There is a correlation between oxidative stress and thrombogenesis [86]. ROS can cause endothelial dysfunction and cellular damage. The endothelial lining of the vascular system contains ACE2 receptors that are targeted by SARS-CoV-2. The resulting endotheliitis can cause luminal narrowing and result in diminished blood flow to downstream structures. Thrombi in arterial structures can further obstruct blood flow causing ischemia and/or infarcts in involved organs, including pulmonary emboli and strokes. Abnormal blood coagulation leading to micro-emboli was a recognized complication early in the history of COVID-19 [87]. Out of 184 ICU COVID-19 patients, 31% showed thrombotic complications [88]. Cardiovascular clotting events are a common cause of COVID-19 deaths [12]. Pulmonary embolism, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), liver, cardiac, and renal failure have all been observed in COVID-19 patients [89].

Patients with the highest cardiovascular risk factors in COVID-19 includ males, the elderly, diabetics, and obese and hypertensive patients. However, increased incidence of strokes in younger patients with COVID-19 has also been described [90].

Oxidative stress is caused by WCR exposure and is known to be implicated in cardiovascular disease. Ubiquitous environmental exposure to WCR may contribute to cardiovascular disease by creating a chronic state of oxidative stress [91]. This would lead to oxidative damage to cellular constituents and alter signal transduction pathways. In addition, pulse-modulated WCR can cause oxidative injury in liver, lung, testis, and heart tissues mediated by lipid peroxidation, increased levels of nitric oxides, and suppression of the antioxidant defense mechanism [92].

In summary, oxidative stress is a major component in the pathophysiology of COVID-19 as well as in cellular damage caused by WCR exposure.

3.3. Immune system disruption and activation

When SARS-CoV-2 first infects the human body, it attacks cells lining the nose, throat, and upper airway harboring ACE2 receptors. Once the virus gains access to a host cell through one of its spike proteins, which are the multiple protuberances projecting from the viral envelope that bind to ACE2 receptors, it converts the cell into a virus self-replicating entity.

In response to COVID-19 infection, both an immediate systemic innate immune response as well as a delayed adaptive response has been shown to occur [93]. The virus can also cause a dysregulation of the immune response, particularly in the decreased production of T-lymphocytes. [94]. Severe cases tend to have lower lymphocyte counts, higher leukocyte counts and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratios, as well as lower percentages of monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils [94]. Severe cases of COVID-19 show the greatest impairment in T-lymphocytes.

In comparison, low-level WCR studies on laboratory animals also show impaired immune function [95]. Findings include physical alterations in immune cells, a degradation of immunological responses, inflammation, and tissue damage. Baranski [96] exposed guinea pigs and rabbits to continuous or pulse-modulated 3000 MHz microwaves at an average power density of 3.5 mW/cm2 for 3 h/day over 3 months and found nonthermal changes in lymphocyte counts, abnormalities in nuclear structure, and mitosis in the erythroblastic cell series in the bone marrow and in lymphoid cells in lymph nodes and spleen. Other investigators have shown diminished T-lymphocytes or suppressed immune function in animals exposed to WCR. Rabbits exposed to 2.1 GHz at 5mW/cm2 for 3 h/day, 6 days/week, for 3 months, showed suppression of T-lymphocytes [97]. Rats exposed to 2.45 GHz and 9.7 GHz for 2 h/day, 7 days/week, for 21 months showed a significant decrease in the levels of lymphocytes and an increase in mortality at 25 months in the irradiated group [98]. Lymphocytes harvested from rabbits irradiated with 2.45 GHz for 23 h/day for 6 months show a significant suppression in immune response to a mitogen [99].

In 2009, Johansson conducted a literature review, which included the 2007 Bioinitiative Report. He concluded that electromagnetic fields (EMF) exposure, including WCR, can disturb the immune system and cause allergic and inflammatory responses at exposure levels significantly less than current national and international safety limits and raise the risk for systemic disease [100]. A review conducted by Szmigielski in 2013 concluded that weak RF/microwave fields, such as those emitted by mobile phones, can affect various immune functions both in vitro and in vivo [101]. Although the effects are historically somewhat inconsistent, most research studies document alterations in the number and activity of immune cells from RF exposure. In general, short-term exposure to weak microwave radiation may temporarily stimulate an innate or adaptive immune response, but prolonged irradiation inhibits those same functions.

In the acute phase of COVID-19 infection, blood tests demonstrate elevated ESR, C-reactive protein, and other elevated inflammatory markers [102], typical of an innate immune response. Rapid viral replication can cause death of epithelial and endothelial cells and result in leaky blood vessels and pro-inflammatory cytokine release [103]. Cytokines, proteins, peptides, and proteoglycans that modulate the body’s immune response, are modestly elevated in patients with mild-to-moderate disease severity [104]. In those with severe disease, an uncontrolled release of pro-inflammatory cytokines–a cytokine storm–can occur. Cytokine storms originate from an imbalance in T-cell activation with dysregulated release of IL-6, IL-17, and other cytokines. Programmed cell death (apoptosis), ARDS, DIC, and multi-organ system failure can all result from a cytokine storm and increase the risk of mortality.

By comparison, Soviet researchers found in the 1970s that radiofrequency radiation can damage the immune system of animals. Shandala [105] exposed rats to 0.5 mW/cm2 microwaves for 1 month, 7 h/day, and found impaired immune competence and induction of autoimmune disease. Rats irradiated with 2.45 GHz at 0.5 mW/cm2 for 7 h daily for 30 days produced autoimmune reactions, and 0.1 – 0.5 mW/cm2 produced persistent pathological immune reactions [106]. Exposure to microwave radiation, even at low levels (0.1 – 0.5 mW/cm2), can impair immune function, causing physical alterations in the essential cells of the immune system and a degradation of immunologic responses [107]. Szabo et al. [108] examined the effects of 61.2 GHz exposure on epidermal keratinocytes and found an increase in IL-1b, a pro-inflammatory cytokine. Makar et al. [109] found that immunosuppressed mice irradiated 30 min/day for 3 days by 42.2 GHz showed increased levels of TNF-α, a cytokine produced by macrophages.

In short, COVID-19 can lead to immune dysregulation as well as cytokine storms. By comparison, exposure to low-level WCR as observed in animal studies can also compromise the immune system, with chronic daily exposure producing immunosuppression or immune dysregulation including hyperactivation.

3.4. Increased intracellular calcium

In 1992, Walleczek first suggested that ELF electromagnetic fields (<3000 Hz) may be affecting membrane-mediated Ca2+ signaling and lead to increased intracellular Ca2+ [110]. The mechanism of irregular gating of voltage-gated ion channels in cell membranes by polarized and coherent, oscillating electric or magnetic fields was first presented in 2000 and 2002 [40,111]. Pall [112] in his review of WCR-induced bioeffects combined with use of calcium channel blockers (CCB) noted that voltage-gated calcium channels play a major role in WCR bioeffects. Increased intracellular Ca+2 results from the activation of voltage-gated calcium channels, and this may be one of the primary mechanisms of action of WCR on organisms.

Intracellular Ca2+ is essential for virus entry, replication, and release. It has been reported that some viruses can manipulate voltage-gated calcium channels to increase intracellular Ca2+ thereby facilitating viral entry and replication [113]. Research has shown that the interaction between a virus and voltage-gated calcium channels promote virus entry at the virus-host cell fusion step [113]. Thus, after the virus binds to its receptor on a host cell and enters the cell through endocytosis, the virus takes over the host cell to manufacture its components. Certain viral proteins then manipulate calcium channels, thereby increasing intracellular Ca2+, which facilitates further viral replication.

Even though direct evidence has not been reported, there is indirect evidence that increased intracellular Ca2+ may be involved in COVID-19. In a recent study, elderly hospitalized COVID-19 patients treated with CCBs, amlodipine or nifedipine, were more likely to survive and less likely to require intubation or mechanical ventilation than controls [114]. Furthermore, CCBs strongly limit SARS-CoV-2 entry and infection in cultured epithelial lung cells [115]. CCBs also block the increase of intracellular Ca2+ caused by WCR exposure as well as exposure to other electromagnetic fields [112].

Intracellular Ca2+ is a ubiquitous second messenger relaying signals received by cell surface receptors to effector proteins involved in numerous biochemical processes. Increased intracellular Ca2+ is a significant factor in upregulation of transcription nuclear factor KB (NF-κB) [116], an important regulator of pro-inflammatory cytokine production as well as coagulation and thrombotic cascades. NF-κB is hypothesized to be a key factor underlying severe clinical manifestations of COVID-19 [117].

In short, WCR exposure, therefore, may enhance the infectivity of the virus by increasing intracellular Ca2+ that may also indirectly contribute to inflammatory processes and thrombosis.

3.5. Cardiac effects

Cardiac arrhythmias are more commonly encountered in critically ill patients with COVID-19 [118]. The cause for arrhythmia in COVID-19 patients is multifactorial and includes cardiac and extra-cardiac processes [119]. Direct infection of the heart muscle by SARS-CoV-19 causing myocarditis, myocardial ischemia caused by a variety of etiologies, and heart strain secondary to pulmonary or systemic hypertension can result in cardiac arrhythmia. Hypoxemia caused by diffuse pneumonia, ARDS, or extensive pulmonary emboli represent extra-cardiac causes of arrhythmia. Electrolyte imbalances, intravascular fluid imbalance, and side effects from pharmacologic regimens can also result in arrhythmias in COVID-19 patients. Patients admitted to ICUs have been shown to have a higher increase in cardiac arrhythmias, 16.5% in one study [120]. Although no correlation between EMFs and arrhythmia in COVID-19 patients has been described in the literature, many ICUs are equipped with wireless patient monitoring equipment and communication devices producing a wide range of EMF pollution [121].

COVID-19 patients commonly show increased levels of cardiac troponin, indicating damage to the heart muscle [122]. Cardiac damage has been associated with arrhythmias and increased mortality. Cardiac injury is thought to be more often secondary to pulmonary emboli and viral sepsis, but direct infection of the heart, that is, myocarditis, can occur through direct viral binding to ACE2 receptors on cardiac pericytes, affecting local, and regional cardiac blood flow [60].

Immune system activation along with alterations in the immune system may result in atherosclerotic plaque instability and vulnerability, that is, presenting an increased risk for thrombus formation, and contributing to development of acute coronary events and cardiovascular disease in COVID-19.

Regarding WCR exposure bioeffects, in 1969 Christopher Dodge of the Biosciences Division, U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington DC, reviewed 54 papers and reported that radiofrequency radiation can adversely affect all major systems of the body, including impeding blood circulation; altering blood pressure and heart rate; affecting electrocardiograph readings; and causing chest pain and heart palpitations [123]. In the 1970s Glaser reviewed more than 2000 publications on radiofrequency radiation exposure bioeffects and concluded that microwave radiation can alter the electrocardiogram, cause chest pain, hypercoagulation, thrombosis, and hypertension in addition to myocardial infarction [27,28]. Seizures, convulsions, and alteration of the autonomic nervous system response (increased sympathetic stress response) have also been observed.

Since then, many other researchers have concluded that WCR exposure can affect the cardiovascular system. Although the nature of the primary response to millimeter waves and consequent events are poorly understood, a possible role for receptor structures and neural pathways in the development of continuous millimeter wave-induced arrhythmia has been proposed [47]. In 1997, a review reported that some investigators discovered cardiovascular changes including arrhythmias in humans from long-term low-level exposure to WCR including microwaves [124]. However, the literature also shows some unconfirmed findings as well as some contradictory findings [125]. Havas et al. [126] reported that human subjects in a controlled, double-blinded study were hyper-reactive when exposed to 2.45 GHz, digitally pulsed (100 Hz) microwave radiation, developing either an arrhythmia or tachycardia and upregulation of the sympathetic nervous system, which is associated with the stress response. Saili et al. [127] found that exposure to Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz pulsed at 10 Hz) affects heart rhythm, blood pressure, and the efficacy of catecholamines on the cardiovascular system, indicating that WCR can act directly and/or indirectly on the cardiovascular system. Most recently, Bandara and Weller [91] present evidence that people who live near radar installations (millimeter waves: 5G frequencies) have a greater risk of developing cancer and experiencing heart attacks. Similarly, those occupationally exposed have a greater risk of coronary heart disease. Microwave radiation affects the heart, and some people are more vulnerable if they have an underlying heart abnormality [128]. More recent research suggests that millimeter waves may act directly on the pacemaker cells of the sinoatrial node of the heart to change the beat frequency, which may underlie arrhythmias and other cardiac issues [47].

In short, both COVID-19 and WCR exposure can affect the heart and cardiovascular system, directly and/or indirectly.Go to:

4. Discussion

Epidemiologists, including those at the CDC, consider multiple causal factors when evaluating the virulence of an agent and understanding its ability to spread and cause disease. Most importantly, these variables include environmental cofactors and the health status of the host. Evidence from the literature summarized here suggests a possible connection between several adverse health effects of WCR exposure and the clinical course of COVID-19 in that WCR may have worsened the COVID-19 pandemic by weakening the host and exacerbating COVID-19 disease. However, none of the observations discussed here prove this linkage. Specifically, the evidence does not confirm causation. Clearly COVID-19 occurs in regions with little wireless communication. Furthermore, the relative morbidity caused by WCR exposure in COVID-19 is unknown.

We recognize that many factors have influenced the pandemic’s course. Before restrictions were imposed, travel patterns facilitated the seeding of the virus, causing early rapid global spread. Population density, higher mean population age, and socioeconomic factors certainly influenced early viral spread. Air pollution, especially particulate matter PM2.5 (2.5 micro-particulates), likely increased symptoms in patients with COVID-19 lung disease [129].

We postulate that WCR possibly contributed to the early spread and severity of COVID-19. Once an agent becomes established in a community, its virulence increases [130]. This premise can be applied to the COVID-19 pandemic. We surmise that “hot spots” of the disease that initially spread around the world were perhaps seeded by air travel, which in some areas were associated with 5G implementation. However, once the disease became established in those communities, it was able to spread more easily to neighboring regions where populations were less exposed to WCR. Second and third waves of the pandemic disseminated widely throughout communities with and without WCR, as might be expected.

The COVID-19 pandemic has offered us an opportunity to delve further into the potential adverse effects of WCR exposure on human health. Human exposure to ambient WCR significantly increased in 2020 as a “side effect” to the pandemic. Stay-at-home measures designed to reduce the spread of COVID-19 inadvertently resulted in greater public exposure to WCR, as people conducted more business and school related activities through wireless communications. Telemedicine created another source of WCR exposure. Even hospital inpatients, particular ICU patients, experienced increased WCR exposure as new monitoring devices utilized wireless communication systems that may exacerbate health disorders. It would potentially provide valuable information to measure ambient WCR power densities in home and work environments when comparing disease severity in patient populations with similar risk factors.

The question of causation could be investigated in future studies. For example, a clinical study could be conducted in COVID-19 patient populations with similar risk factors, to measure the WCR daily dose in COVID-19 patients and look for a correlation with disease severity and progression over time. As wireless device carrier frequencies and modulations may differ, and the power densities of WCR fluctuate constantly at a given location, this study would require patients to wear personal microwave dosimeters (monitoring badges). In addition, controlled laboratory studies could be conducted on animals, for example, humanized mice infected with SARS-CoV-2, in which groups of animals exposed to minimal WCR (control group) as well as medium and high power densities of WCR could be compared for disease severity and progression.

A major strength of this paper is that the evidence rests on a large body of scientific literature reported by many scientists worldwide and over several decades–experimental evidence of adverse bioeffects of WCR exposure at nonthermal levels on humans, animals, and cells. The Bioinitiative Report [42], updated in 2020, summarizes hundreds of peer-reviewed scientific papers documenting evidence of nonthermal effects from exposures ≤1 mW/cm2. Even so, some laboratory studies on the adverse health effects of WCR have sometimes utilized power densities exceeding 1mW/cm2. In this paper, almost all of the studies that we reviewed included experimental data at power densities ≤1 mW/cm2.

A potential criticism of this paper is that adverse bioeffects from nonthermal exposures are not yet universally accepted in science. Moreover, they are not yet considered in establishing public health policy in many nations. Decades ago, Russians and Eastern Europeans compiled considerable data on nonthermal bioeffects, and subsequently set guidelines at lower radiofrequency radiation exposure limits than the US and Canada, that is, below levels where nonthermal effects are observed. However, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC, a US government entity) and ICNIRP guidelines operate on thermal limits based on outdated data from decades ago, allowing the public to be exposed to considerably higher radiofrequency radiation power densities. Regarding 5G, the telecommunication industry claims that it is safe because it complies with current radiofrequency radiation exposure guidelines of the FCC and ICNIRP. These guidelines were established in 1996 [131], are antiquated, and are not safety standards. Thus, there are no universally accepted safety standards for wireless communication radiation exposure. Recently international bodies, such as the EMF Working Group of the European Academy of Environmental Medicine, have proposed much lower guidelines, taking into account nonthermal bioeffects from WCR exposure in multiple sources [132].

Another weakness of this paper is that some of the bioeffects from WCR exposure are inconsistently reported in the literature. Replicated studies are often not true replications. Small differences in method, including unreported details, such as prior history of exposure of the organisms, non-uniform body exposure, and other variables can lead to inadvertent inconsistency. Moreover, not surprisingly, industry-sponsored studies tend to show less adverse bioeffects than studies conducted by independent researchers, suggesting industry bias [133]. Some experimental studies that are not industry-sponsored have also shown no evidence of harmful effects of WCR exposure. It is noteworthy, however, that studies employing real-life WCR exposures from commercially available devices have shown high consistency in revealing adverse effects [134].

WCR bioeffects depend on specific values of wave parameters including frequency, power density, polarization, exposure duration, modulation characteristics, as well as the cumulative history of exposure and background levels of electromagnetic, electric and magnetic fields. In laboratory studies, bioeffects observed also depend on genetic parameters and physiological parameters such as oxygen concentration [135]. The reproducibility of bioeffects of WCR exposure has sometimes been difficult due to failure to report and/or control all of these parameters. Similar to ionizing radiation, the bioeffects of WCR exposure can be subdivided into deterministic, that is, dose-dependent effects and stochastic effects that are seemingly random. Importantly, WCR bioeffects can also involve “response windows” of specific parameters whereby extremely low-level fields can have disproportionally detrimental effects [136]. This nonlinearity of WCR bioeffects can result in biphasic responses such as immune suppression from one range of parameters, and immune hyperactivation from another range of parameters, leading to variations that may appear inconsistent.

In gathering reports and examining existing data for this paper, we looked for outcomes providing evidence to support a proposed connection between the bioeffects of WCR exposure and COVID-19. We did not make an attempt to weigh the evidence. The radiofrequency radiation exposure literature is extensive and currently contains over 30,000 research reports dating back several decades. Inconsistencies in nomenclature, reporting of details, and cataloging of keywords make it difficult to navigate this enormous literature.

Another shortcoming of this paper is that we do not have access to experimental data on 5G exposures. In fact, little is known about population exposure from real-world WCR, which includes exposure to WCR infrastructure and the plethora of WCR emitting devices. In relation to this, it is difficult to accurately quantify the average power density at a given location, which varies greatly, depending on the time, specific location, time-averaging interval, frequency, and modulation scheme. For a specific municipality it depends on the antenna density, which network protocols are used, as, for example, 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G, Wi-Fi, WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access), DECT (Digitally Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications), and RADAR (Radio Detection and Ranging). There is also WCR from ubiquitous radio wave transmitters, including antennas, base stations, smart meters, mobile phones, routers, satellites, and other wireless devices currently in use. All of these signals superimpose to yield the total average power density at a given location that typically fluctuates greatly over time. No experimental studies on adverse health effects or safety issues of 5G have been reported, and none are currently planned by the industry, although this is sorely needed.

Finally, there is an inherent complexity to WCR that makes it very difficult to fully characterize wireless signals in the real world that may be associated with adverse bioeffects. Real world digital communication signals, even from single wireless devices, have highly variable signals: variable power density, frequency, modulation, phase, and other parameters changing constantly and unpredictably each moment, as associated with the short, rapid pulsations used in digital wireless communication [137]. For example, in using a mobile phone during a typical phone conversation, the intensity of emitted radiation varies significantly each moment depending on signal reception, number of subscribers sharing the frequency band, location within the wireless infrastructure, presence of objects and metallic surfaces, and “speaking” versus “non-speaking” mode, among others. Such variations may reach 100% of the average signal intensity. The carrier radiofrequency constantly changes between different values within the available frequency band. The greater the amount of information (text, speech, internet, video, etc.), the more complex the communication signals become. Therefore, we cannot estimate accurately the values of these signal parameters including ELF components or predict their variability over time. Thus, studies on the bioeffects of WCR in the laboratory can only be representative of real-world exposures [137].

This paper points to the need for further research on nonthermal WCR exposure and its potential role in COVID-19. Moreover, some of the WCR exposure bioeffects that we discuss here — oxidative stress, inflammation, and immune system disruption — are common to many chronic diseases, including autoimmune disease and diabetes. Thus, we hypothesize that WCR exposure may also be a potential contributing factor in many chronic diseases.

When a course of action raises threats of harm to human health, precautionary measures should be taken, even if clear causal relationships are not yet fully established. Therefore, we must apply the Precautionary Principle [138] regarding wireless 5G. The authors urge policymakers to execute an immediate worldwide moratorium on wireless 5G infrastructure until its safety can be assured.

Several unresolved safety issues should be addressed before wireless 5G is further implemented. Questions have been raised about 60 GHz, a key 5G frequency planned for extensive use, which is a resonant frequency of the oxygen molecule [139]. It is possible that adverse bioeffects might ensue from oxygen absorption of 60 GHz. In addition, water shows broad absorption in the GHz spectral region along with resonance peaks, for example, strong absorption at 2.45 GHz that is used in 4G Wi-Fi routers. This raises safety issues about GHz exposure of the biosphere, since organisms are comprised of mostly water, and changes in the structure of water due to GHz absorption have been reported that affect organisms [140]. Bioeffects from prolonged WCR exposure of the whole body need to be investigated in animal and human studies, and long-term exposure guidelines need to be considered. Independent scientists in particular should conduct concerted research to determine the biological effects of real-world exposure to WCR frequencies with digital modulation from the multiplicity of wireless communication devices. Testing could also include real-life exposures to multiple toxins (chemical and biological) [141], because multiple toxins may lead to synergistic effects. Environmental impact assessments are also needed. Once the long-term biological effects of wireless 5G are understood, we can set clear safety standards of public exposure limits and design an appropriate strategy for safe deployment.Go to:

5. Conclusion

There is a substantial overlap in pathobiology between COVID-19 and WCR exposure. The evidence presented here indicates that mechanisms involved in the clinical progression of COVID-19 could also be generated, according to experimental data, by WCR exposure. Therefore, we propose a link between adverse bioeffects of WCR exposure from wireless devices and COVID-19.

Specifically, evidence presented here supports a premise that WCR and, in particular, 5G, which involves densification of 4G, may have exacerbated the COVID-19 pandemic by weakening host immunity and increasing SARS-CoV-2 virulence by (1) causing morphologic changes in erythrocytes including echinocyte and rouleaux formation that may be contributing to hypercoagulation; (2) impairing microcirculation and reducing erythrocyte and hemoglobin levels exacerbating hypoxia; (3) amplifying immune dysfunction, including immunosuppression, autoimmunity, and hyperinflammation; (4) increasing cellular oxidative stress and the production of free radicals exacerbating vascular injury and organ damage; (5) increasing intracellular Ca2+ essential for viral entry, replication, and release, in addition to promoting pro-inflammatory pathways; and (6) worsening heart arrhythmias and cardiac disorders.

WCR exposure is a widespread, yet often neglected, environmental stressor that can produce a wide range of adverse bioeffects. For decades, independent research scientists worldwide have emphasized the health risks and cumulative damage caused by WCR [42,45]. The evidence presented here is consistent with a large body of established research. Healthcare workers and policymakers should consider WCR a potentially toxic environmental stressor. Methods for reducing WCR exposure should be provided to all patients and the general population.

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge small contributions to early versions of this paper by Magda Havas and Lyn Patrick. We are grateful to Susan Clarke for helpful discussions and suggested edits of early drafts of the manuscript.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest in preparing and publishing this manuscript. No competing financial interests exist.

To be continued?
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! Articles can always be subject of later editing as a way of perfecting them

Sometimes my memes are 3D. And you can own them. Or send them to someone.
You can even eat some of them.
CLICK HERE

The data is in and ignoring it is like sticking forks in your own eyes to avoid seeing a coming tsunami.

Update: And YouTube just stuck forks in its users’ eyes again, despite the fact that I deliberately made no mentions of vaccines or even Covid. More evidence this has never been about a virus.
But of course we stopped relying on the Googlag agents a while ago, so you can watch the video below and on Bitchute / Odysee / Brigheon

German media has recently compiled a list of over 75 athletes who have suffered cardiac arrests during sport competitions, between June and October 2021.

Independent researchers like People like Del Bigtree and J Wilderness furthered the German research (massive thanks!) and I’ve just brought it all together, adding a few details and a larger perspective:


I will try to keep up with the phenomenon and the growing list.


Even using Google search we’re easily gathering about 100 cases in half a year. Let’s assume the other months were slower, but, if we are to be fair, we also have to account for under-reporting, which is always the case with anything that can potentially cast a shadow on Pharmafia.


However you look at it, in 2021, we’re still at about 150-200 events in 2021, mostly deadly.

In all recorded history up until 2017, there are 74 such events recorded, only about half of them deadly, according to the New England Journal of Medicine. Other sources are less generous.


We have seen no uptick in 2018-2020, so, if the rate maintained, we can’t assume more than 80 events up until 2021.

150-200 / 80

So, a crucial question arises: was it Covid or climate change?

GOT YOU! 😀

A “small number” of vaccinated people have suffered heart inflammation problems as a result of the vaccine, according to a Wall Street Journal report.
Right.

However, there are some more lucid-minded people out there who have already acted on this as a “growing concern”, as early as June 2021.

COACHES IN US ARE NOW ASKED TO KNOW CPR (RESUSCITATION). FOR NATURAL REASONS, OF COURSE, IT JUST CAME UP…

Given the general situation, it’s fair to say everyone should know basic CPR nowadays.

UPDATE DECEMBER 2, 2021

The GERMAN list

Note: dates formats is mixed ( month/day/year order), but they are all June to October 2021.

4.6.21, Italy, 29 years old
Italy: The 29-year-old ex-professional Giuseppe Perrino collapses during a charity game for his dead brother and dies.

7.6.21, Germany 38 years old
The table tennis professional Michael Schneider dies suddenly and unexpectedly.

12.6.21, Denmark, 29 years old
The footballer Christian Eriksen collapses lifelessly during a European Championship game – he can be revived if he needs a pacemaker for the rest of his life.

22.6.21, Hungary, 18 years old
Footballer Viktor Marcell Hegedüs died while warming up for training in Hungary.

14.07.21, Netherlands, 31 years old,
Olympic speed skating champion Kjelt Nuis, seriously ill after vaccination, with heart problems in hospital.

16/07/21, Egypt
Footballer Imad Bayumi died during a friendly match in Egypt.

07/22/21, Germany, 36 years old
On July 22nd, SV Olympia Schlanstedt and Germania from Kroppenstedt met. During the game Schlanstedts player Nicky Dalibor collapsed and had to be reanimated on the field .

07/23/21, Germany, 27 years old
Tim B. from SV Hamberge (Schleswig-Holstein) collapses after returning from a soccer tournament and dies.

07/24/21, Germany
player from TuS Hoberge-Uerentrup (Bielefeld) collapses on the field with cardiac arrest.

07/31/21, Netherlands, 19 years old
The 19-year-old handball player Whitnée Abriska died of cardiac arrest just before a flight.

02.08.21, Belgium, 18 years old
Rune Coghe (18) from Eendracht Hoglede (Belgium) suffers a heart attack during game

02.08.21, Austria, 18 years
chronicle: 18-year-old unnamed player in Burgenland (Austria) collapses on the playing field and can be saved thanks to the use of a helicopter.

08/06/21, Germany
district league player of the SpVgg. Oelde II has to be revived by his opponent .

14.08.21, Belgium, 37 years old
The only 37-year-old former French professional footballer Franck Berrier died of several heart attacks while playing tennis .

08/15/21 Germany
goalkeeping coach of SV Niederpöring suffers heart attack after training .

8/16/21 France 24 years
Bordeaux pro Samuel Kalu breaks during a Ligue 1 game with cardiac arrest together

18.08.21, Belgium, 25 years old
Belgian soccer player Jente Van Genechten (25) suffers cardiac arrest in the early stages of a cup game .

21.08.21, Turkey, 31 years old
Fabrice N’Sakala (31) from Besiktas Istanbul collapses on the field without interference from the opponent and has to be taken to hospital

22.08.21, Italy, 29 years old
Pedro Obiang from the Italian first division club Sassuolo Calcio after Covid vaccination with myocarditis in hospital .

22.08.21, Venezuela, 30 years
Venezuelan national marathon champion Alexaida Guedez dies of a heart attack during a 5,000 meter run.

24.08.21, Luxembourg, 29 years old
José dos Reis, a player from Red Black Pfaffenthal (Luxembourg) collapses on the field and has to be resuscitated.

08/29/21, Germany
In the C-League Dillenburg ( Central Hesse) a player from Hirzenhain collapses , the game is canceled.

05.09.21, France, 16 years old
Diego Ferchaud (16 years old) from ASPTT Caen suffers a cardiac arrest in a U-18 league match in Saint-Lô.

06.09.21, Austria The
player of ASV Baden (Lower Austria) collapses on the field and has to be reanimated .

09/06/21, Italy, 16 years old
16-year-old unnamed football player in Bergamo suffers cardiac arrest

06.09.21, Belgium, 27 years old
Belgian amateur soccer player Jens De Smet (27) from Maldegem suffers a heart attack during the game and dies in hospital.

06.09.21, Italy, 13 years
13-year-old soccer player from the Janus Nova club from Saccolongo (Italy) collapses on the field with cardiac arrest

07.09.21, Great Britain, 17 years
old 17 year old soccer player Dylan Rich dies of a double heart attack during a game in England .

09.09.21, Germany
player from Birati Club Münster suffers in a regional league game against FC Nordkirchen II Eriksen fate: collapse with cardiac arrest. Game is canceled

09/10/21, Germany, 24 years old
Lucas Surek (24) from BFC Chemie Leipzig suffers from myocarditis .

09/11/21, France, 49 years old
Ain / France: Frédéric Lartillot succumbs to a heart attack after a friendly match in the locker room

09/11/21, Italy, 45 years old
Andrea Astolfi, sporting director of Calcio Orsago (Italy) suffers a fulminant heart attack after returning from training and dies at the age of 45 without any previous illness

09/11/21, Denmark, 22 years old
Abou Ali (22) collapses with cardiac arrest during a two-tier game in Denmark

09/11/21, Netherlands, 19 years old
The ice hockey player Sebastiaan Bos passed away suddenly and unexpectedly .

09/12/21, Austria, 40 years old
A half marathon runner collapsed during the race and died a little later.

9/13/21, Germany
Anil Usta from VfB Schwelm (Ennepetal) breaks on the field with heart problems together

09/13/21, France 33 years old
Dimitri Liénard from FC Strasbourg collapses with heart problems in a Ligue 1 game .

09/14/21, USA 37 years old
Ex-NFL professional Parys Haralson dies suddenly and unexpectedly at the age of 37 .

18.09.21, Germany 25 years old
Kingsley Coman (25) from FC Bayern Munich had an operation on the heart after an arrhythmia.

18.09.21, Canada 25 years old
Canadian university football player Francis Perron passed away shortly after a match .

19.09.21, France 19 years old
19 year old FC Nantes soccer player suffers cardiac arrest during training

19.09.21, Germany
volleyball trainer Dirk Splisteser from SG Traktor Divitz collapses dead on the sidelines

21.09.21, Augsburg
assistant referee of a Kreisliga Augsburg game in Emersacker , collapses with heart problems

09/21/21, Germany
At the women’s World Cup qualifier between Germany and Serbia in Chemnitz, the English linesman Helen Byrne with heart problems has to be carried off the pitch

09/27/21, Germany Game abandoned
due to cardiac arrest of the referee in a game of Lauber SV (Donauwörth district)

27.09.21, Italy, 20 years old
Young rider suffers a heart attack at the end of a tournament .

9/28/21, Germany, 17 years
17-year-old soccer player of the JSG High Hagen has reanimated in Hannoversch Munden during game be

09.28.21, Italy, 53 years
53-year-old football coach Antonello Campus breaks in Sicily during practice with his youth team together dead

09/28/21, USA, 16 years old,
twice vaccinated teenager collapses while playing soccer and dies a little later.

09/29/21, Germany
Team leader Dietmar Gladow from Thalheim (Bitterfeld) suffers a fatal heart attack before the game

9/29/21, USA
A high school football player collapsed during practice and died in the hospital.

09/30/21, Germany
A player collapsed during the A 2 regional league game between SV Hoßkirch and TSV Sigmaringendorf. He suffered cardiac arrest and had to be resuscitated .

1.10.21, Germany, 15 years
young goalkeeper Bruno Stein from FC An der Fahner Höhe in Gräfentonna, Thuringia , died at the age of 15 .

October 3, 21, Austria, 64 years old
former goalkeeper coach and most recently talent scout Ernst Scherr died suddenly and unexpectedly .

4.10.21, Germany, 42 years old
Alexander Siegfried from VfB Moschendorf suddenly and unexpectedly collapsed and died.

7.10.21, Italy, 17 years old
A 17-year-old athlete from Colverde collapses while training with cardiac arrest .

8.10.21, France, 49 years old
SC Massay player suffers a fatal heart attack during the game .

9.10.21, Mexico
Caddy Alberto Olguin collapses on the golf course after a heart attack. It is said to be the second death of its kind within a short period of time.

9.10.21, England, 29 years old
Shrewsbury professional striker Ryan Bowman has to be treated with a defibrillator after half an hour of play with extreme heart problems.

10.10.21, Italy, 18 year old
soccer player suddenly faints on the field, is reanimated by his teammate .

10/10/21, France, 40 years old
Saint-James player suffers a heart attack after warming up .

10.10.21, Italy, 59 years old
long-distance runner from Biella dies of heart failure during a race.

10.10.2021, Germany
In the match between Wacker Mecklenbeck and Fortuna Freudenberg in the Women’s Westphalia League , a player collapses shortly before the end without any opposing influence.

12.10.21 Germany, 25 years
goalkeeper of HC TuRa Bergkamen, Lukas Bommer, dies suddenly and unexpectedly .

13.10.21, Mexico, 16 years old
The student Hector Manuel Mendoza dies of a heart attack while training .

14.10.21, Brazil, 18 years old
The young professional footballer Fellipe de Jesus Moreira suffered a double heart attack and is fighting for his life.

14.10.21, Italy, 27 years old
The multiple cycling champion Gianni Moscon has to undergo an operation because of severe cardiac arrhythmias .

14.10.21, Italy, 53 years old
An AH footballer suffers a heart attack while training .

15.10.21, USA, 14 years old
The 14-year-old soccer player Ava Azzopardi collapsed on the pitch and is now fighting for her life in an artificial coma.

16.10.21, France, 54 years old
AH player Christophe Ramassamy died of a heart attack during a match .

17.10.21, France, 41 years old
A soccer player collapsed on the field and died , apparently due to cardiac arrest.

27.10.21, Austria, 26 years old
The Ghanaian Raphael Dwamena collapsed with severe heart problems . He was wearing a defibrillator before the incident.

28.10.21, Germany,
Hertha BSC co-trainer Selim Levent dies suddenly and unexpectedly while on vacation .

28.10.21, USA, 12 years
The 12-year-old Jayson Kidd collapsed during basketball practice and later died.

30.10.21, Spain, 33-year-old
striker Kun Agüero from FC Barcelona had to be replaced in a game due to heart problems . He is now in the hospital for examinations.

Our additional list (DEVELOPING, crowd-sourced)

Emmanuel Antwi, Mar 21, 2021, US, 18 years old
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SKhyEKb6fEM

Alex Sandro dos Santos Apolinário, 7 January, 2021, Portugal, 24 years old
https://www.espn.com/soccer/brazil-bra/story/4281863/brazilian-player-dies-after-cardiac-arrest-on-pitch-in-portugal

Jake Kazmarek. Oct 2, 2021, US, 28 years old

Babu Nalawade, Feb 18, 2021, India, age: not known
Cricketer Dies During Cricket Match Following Heart Attack in Maharashtra

Jayden Rodriguez, January 17, 2021, US, 13 years old
https://6abc.com/child-athlete-cardiac-arrest-student/11163500/

Doudou Faye, October 30, 2021, Tunisia, 35 years old
The reasons for the death of basketball player Doudou Faye finally known: heart attack

Boris Sádecký, Nov 4, 2021, Slovakia, 24 years old
Slovak Player Boris Sádecký Passes Away | The Hockey News on Sports Illustrated

Florian Dagoury, Thailand, 35 years old
World Record Holder In Static Breath-Hold Freediving Diagnosed With Myopericarditis After Pfizer Vaccine, Possible End Of Career

Chinelle Henry, July 2, 2021, Antigua
https://www.india.com/sports/cricket-two-west-indies-players-chinelle-henry-chedean-nation-collapse-on-field-during-2nd-t20i-against-pakistan-women-watch-video-4785827/

Chedean Nation, July 2, 2021, Antigua
https://www.india.com/sports/cricket-two-west-indies-players-chinelle-henry-chedean-nation-collapse-on-field-during-2nd-t20i-against-pakistan-women-watch-video-4785827/

Avi Barot, 29, Saurashtra cricketer suffers cardiac arrest, passes away: https://www.thehindu.com/…/young…/article37015873.ece

Abou Ali, 22, professional footballer collapses on pitch during game:https://www.thesun.co.uk/…/footballer-wessam-abou-ali…/

Fabrice NSakala, 31, Besiktas defender collapses on pitch during game:https://www.theguardian.com/…/fabrice-nsakala-besiktas…

Jens De Smet, 27, footballer collapses on field, passes away of heart attack:https://newswep.com/jens-27-collapses-on-the-football…/

Jente van Genechten, 25, footballer collapses on field due to heart attack:https://www.sudinfo.be/…/25-ans-un-joueur-belge-de…

Frederic Lartillot, French footballer collapses in changing room, passes away due to heart attack after game:https://www.leprogres.fr/…/deces-d-un-joueur-de-foot…

Benjamin Taft, 31, German footballer collapses after game, passes away due to heart attack:https://www.anpfiff.info/mobile/sites/cms/artikel.aspx?SK=2&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;Btr=96044&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;Rub=390

Rune Coghe, 18, Belgian footballer suffers cardiac arrest on pitch:https://www.sudinfo.be/…/rune-jeune-joueur-de-18-ans…

Helen Edwards, referee taken off court during World Cup qualifier due to heart issues:https://www.rtl.de/…/dfb-spiel-unterbrochen…

Dimitri Lienard, 33, FC Strasbourg midfielder collapses during game:https://madeinfoot.ouest-france.fr/…/article-rc…

Markis Kido, June 2, 2021, Indonesia, 36 years old
Indonesian doubles star Kido dies of heart attack at 36

Sergio Aguero, 33, Barecelona star striker admitted to hospital for cardiac exam after match:https://www.cnn.com/…/sergio-aguero…/index.html

Emil Palsson, 28, Sognal midfielder collapses due to cardiac arrest during game:https://www.independent.co.uk/…/norway-footballer-emil…

Antoine Méchin, 31, French triathlete suffers pulmonary embolism following Moderna:https://www.sudouest.fr/…/le-triathlete-saintais…

Luis Ojeda, 20, Argentine football player unexpectedly passes away:https://www.antena3.com/…/emotiva-carta-lola-ortiz…

Greg Luyssen, 22, Belgian pro cyclist ends career due to heart issues:https://kw.be/…/wielerbelofte-greg-luyssen-22-uit-de…/

Pedro Obiang, 29, ex-West Ham star suffers myocarditis post vaccine:https://thecovidworld.com/pedro-obiang-29-year-old…/

Cienna Knowles, 19, equestrian star hospitalized due to blood clots: https://www.news.com.au/…/286e7cd42e896b091e4b257322296a05

To be continued?
Our work and existence, as media and people, is funded solely by our most generous readers and we want to keep this way.
We hardly made it before, but this summer something’s going on, our audience stats show bizarre patterns, we’re severely under estimates and the last savings are gone. We’re not your responsibility, but if you find enough benefits in this work…
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ORDER

It’s ironic how many millions videos YouTube deleted for arguing the same guy they’re taking down now.
They came full circle. And by “circle” I mean…

The video has just emerged from Brazil, but it’s been recorded two weeks back, at the G20 summit in Rome.

Brazil’s Poder 360 reported:

In the dialogue, mediated by a translator, Bolsonaro cast doubts on social isolation measures, the obligation to have a vaccine passport and on the vaccination of children. He also criticized the judiciary, which, according to him, concentrated powers on governors and mayors and said he was accused of genocide for “politics”…

We have a long list of these bans, some discussed here, but this seems to be the one crying ‘in your face’ the loudest so far.

Previous victims of YouTube’s Politburo:

  • a doctor who has treated over 200 members of the US Congress. But YouTube took him down for arguing Tedros:
  • NASA
The deleted video was made by NASA

BANNED BY YOUTUBE: ASTRA-ZENECA’S COVID-19 VACCINE PACKAGE

LATEST YOUTUBE BAN: MAN-MADE CORONAVIRUS AND PEOPLE BEGGING FOR DNA-ALTERING VACCINES IN MIND-BENDING 2014 INTERVIEW

YOUTUBE DELETES OUR CHANNEL OVER LOCKSTEP VIDEO. BUT I THINK IT’S DEEPER THAN THAT

YOUTUBE DELETED OUR SECOND CHANNEL OVER THIS VID OF A MAN DYING IN CANCER PAINS DUE TO THE COVID RESPONSE

‘We’re removing the dislike button to save creators from depression”

BONUS:

To be continued?
Our work and existence, as media and people, is funded solely by our most generous readers and we want to keep this way.
We hardly made it before, but this summer something’s going on, our audience stats show bizarre patterns, we’re severely under estimates and the last savings are gone. We’re not your responsibility, but if you find enough benefits in this work…
Help SILVIEW.media survive and grow, please donate here, anything helps. Thank you!

! Articles can always be subject of later editing as a way of perfecting them

Sometimes my memes are 3D. And you can own them. Or send them to someone.
You can even eat some of them.
CLICK HERE

“The latest widest news in Molecular Microbiology”, according to microbiologists. Not so much outside their world. The consequences are beyond imagination…

Here’s the study, my brief comments after:

SARS–CoV–2 Spike Impairs DNA Damage Repair and Inhibits V(D)J Recombination In Vitro

by Hui Jiang 1,2,* andYa-Fang Mei 2,*1Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner–Gren Institute, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden2Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology, Umeå University, SE-90185 Umeå, Sweden*
 https://doi.org/10.3390/v13102056
Received: 20 August 2021 / Revised: 8 September 2021 / Accepted: 8 October 2021 / Published: 13 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 Host Cell Interactions)
View Full-TextDownload PDFBrowse FiguresCitation Export

Abstract

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS–CoV–2) has led to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID–19) pandemic, severely affecting public health and the global economy. Adaptive immunity plays a crucial role in fighting against SARS–CoV–2 infection and directly influences the clinical outcomes of patients. Clinical studies have indicated that patients with severe COVID–19 exhibit delayed and weak adaptive immune responses; however, the mechanism by which SARS–CoV–2 impedes adaptive immunity remains unclear. Here, by using an in vitro cell line, we report that the SARS–CoV–2 spike protein significantly inhibits DNA damage repair, which is required for effective V(D)J recombination in adaptive immunity.
Mechanistically, we found that the spike protein localizes in the nucleus and inhibits DNA damage repair by impeding key DNA repair protein BRCA1 and 53BP1 recruitment to the damage site. Our findings reveal a potential molecular mechanism by which the spike protein might impede adaptive immunity and underscore the potential side effects of full-length spike-based vaccines.
 View Full-Text


The study is in vitro (of course), remains to be confirmed in vivo (that will be a long adventure), but it’s very worrying nevertheless.

Some scientists have quickly reacted by demanding a reformulation of the Covid vaccines so that they contain only a fragment of the protein that would delivere the desired effect without the unwanted ones. But:
1) do they have any proof a fragment won’t wreck havoc too?
2) have they forgotten already that the spike originates in the ‘virus’, are they really telling us everyone who had Covid is potentially ‘broken’, or
3) do they think, as I do, that the virus exists only on servers and the protein only in the goo they sell as ‘Covid vaccines’?

Dr Mikolaj Raszek, Phd from Merogenomics

“Antibody Dependent Enhancement or ADE could occur with use of full length of Spike protein”, dr. Rszek says, I’d ask what are the chances for it to NOT occur in the billion people or so that have been chemically raped so far?

What all this involves:

  1. Anyone who got the spike can break down at any time in ways we can’t even fully anticipate. That includes those who got it from a virus as well as those who got it from an injection. Recent discovery that Spikes may circulate for months on end in Exosomes to different parts of the body and in theory enter cells well after the point of vaccination
  2. I’m personally not worried about any natural coronaviruses ever, but if you are or if you think an artificial virus had a pandemic outbreak recently, and it became unescapable, then this is an extinction level threat and the countdown has already started. Reformulating vaccines will only prevent us from pouring gas on our own burning roof.
  3. Whether if you think the spike only comes from the syringe and the shedding vaxxtards, like I do, or from viral sources, vaccination must be stopped NOW, there’s no way the benefits can outweigh the risks!

So yeah…
RUBICON CROSSED: COVIDIOTS PEED SO MUCH IN THE GENE POOL IT’S IRREVERSIBLY UNFREQUENTABLE

To be continued?
Our work and existence, as media and people, is funded solely by our most generous readers and we want to keep this way.
We hardly made it before, but this summer something’s going on, our audience stats show bizarre patterns, we’re severely under estimates and the last savings are gone. We’re not your responsibility, but if you find enough benefits in this work…
Help SILVIEW.media survive and grow, please donate here, anything helps. Thank you!

! Articles can always be subject of later editing as a way of perfecting them

Sometimes my memes are 3D. And you can own them. Or send them to someone.
You can even eat some of them.
CLICK HERE

The world is an astrotrurf festival.
If you don’t know what astroturf is, you’re probably one of its daily victims.
It’s, basically, everything that followed in mainstream media after the Astroworld Festival tragedy.

Most of the credits for the video go to Hugo @ hugotalks.com
As I was investigating this, I kept falling in his footsteps. As he did it first and voiced it well, I just did a enhanced remix of his reports. Watch his stuff too, he has more to bring to the table, I brought a little something too.

UPDATE NOVEMBER 11 – POLICE ABANDONS THE INJECTED SECURITY GUARD PLOT. STILL NO REAL SURGE OR STAMPEDE IN NEWLY FOUND VIDEOS

I haven’t seen this press conference covered by any major network, maybe I just missed it…

TO PICK it UP FROM WHERE THE VIDEOS LEFT IT:

By education and work records, I’m a journalist, but more people around the world know me as a music producer / DJ / label manager. I played many of these festivals. I also like science. So I immediately knew where to look:

Also:

Radio frequency heating and reduction of Graphene Oxide and Graphene Oxide – Polyvinyl Alcohol Composites

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2020.07.076Get rights and content

Abstract

“Graphene oxide (GO) is one of the most frequently-used graphene-family materials, but it must often be reduced in order to restore electrical conductivity for the target applications. We have demonstrated the use of non-contact fringing field RF applicators to rapidly heat and reduce GO, both in its neat form and inside a polymer matrix such as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). For this study, GO and GO-PVA films were prepared by the vacuum filtration method. The results demonstrate quick non-contact heating of GO and GO-PVA composite films by application of RF fields. Heating rates as high as 10.9 °C/s and 1.5 °C/s have been observed for GO and GO-PVA, respectively. RF-reduced GO and GO-PVA samples have shown conductivities of 102 S/m and 10−1 S/m, respectively. In addition, C/O ratio has increased from 2.44 to 5.22 when GO is exposed to RF waves which confirm that GO samples are reduced by the RF treatment. Unlike time-consuming or hazardous conventional reduction methods, RF waves resistively heat GO with electric fields in seconds to form reduced GO.”

Or it could be other source of frequencies at the higher spectrum where graphene is sensible and where mobile phones and other communication networks operate, or the stage equipment.

Radio-frequency characteristics of graphene oxide

Applied Physics Lett. 97, 193103 (2010); https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3506468

ABSTRACTWe confirm graphene oxide, a two-dimensional carbon structure at the nanoscale level can be a strong candidate for high-efficient interconnector in radio-frequency range. In this paper, we investigate high frequency characteristics of graphene oxide in range of 0.5–40 GHz. Radio-frequency transmission properties were extracted as S-parameters to determine the intrinsic ac transmission of graphene sheets, such as the impedance variation dependence on frequency. The impedance and resistance of graphene sheets drastically decrease as frequency increases. This result confirms graphene oxide has high potential for transmitting signals at gigahertz ranges.

This work was partially supported by the Priority Research Centers Program (Grant No. 2009-0093823), the Pioneer Research Center Program (Grant No. 2010-0019313), and Basic Science Research Program (Grant No. 2010-8-0874) through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST) of the Korean government. We thank R. S. Ruoff and S. Stankovich for providing the GO used in this study.

Graphene Nanomaterials-Based Radio-Frequency/Microwave Biosensors for Biomaterials Detection

Materials (Basel). 2019 Mar; 12(6):  doi: 10.3390/ma12060952

Recent Research Trends: RF/Microwave Biosensors Based on Graphene Nanomaterials for Wireless Biomedical Applications

Recent advances in integrated biosensing platforms associated with remote sensing via RF/microwave wireless systems have focused on design and architecture of point-of-care (POC) diagnosis, attracting considerable interest in the biomedical applications. In particular, POC has significant diagnosis possibilities for use in the continuous and real-time monitoring of human metabolites as well as cancer biomarkers [92]. In addition, flexible and stretchable-integrated biosensors can directly monitor metabolic changes on the human body and quantify the electrically fine signals generated by specific bodily fluids. As a result, from this biosensing scheme, the wearable biosensors that can be attached intimately in the skin or tissue offer new opportunities for medical diagnostics and therapy. In recent years, there has been enormous progress in graphene-integrated wireless RF/microwave systems for real-time monitoring of metabolic change [93]. For example, a wireless smart soft contact lens system composed of reconfigurable capacitive sensor interface circuitry and wirelessly powered RFID addressable system for sensor control and data communication [94,95] was developed. In particular, monitoring for glucose and other biomarkers may become more sophisticated if the sensor is coated with graphene in this system.

Conclusions and Prospective

Recent advances in graphene nanomaterials such as synthesis techniques, electrical, thermal and mechanical analysis, surface treatment and device design have accelerated the development and application of graphene nanomaterials-based nanoelectronics as well as bioelectronics. In this review, we have examined the emerging advances of graphene nanomaterials-integrated biosensors including structures and merits of graphene nanomaterials and their biological functionalization in RF/microwave biomedical applications. From the developed RF/microwave biosensors, these biosensing schemes could be classified with passive RF/microwave devices and RF/microwave systems with graphene nanomaterials. Firstly, it was used as a biosensing scheme utilizing simple RF/microwave devices such as resonators and capacitors, with graphene nanomaterials like GO or rGO. In the case of latter, it was used as a biosensing scheme utilizing RF/microwave systems with graphene nanomaterials, e.g., graphene. These RF/microwave biosensors could be detectable of biomolecules, e.g., glucose, DNA, as well as bacteria, e.g., S. aureusE. coli and so on, via bifunctional peptide.

However, the research and development of these materials-based biosensing systems are in their infancy in the RF/microwave biomedical applications. This is because it is not only difficult to find the optimized frequency for biosensing, but devices and circuits also are dependent on the frequency. However, since there are great merits such as real-time, non-invasive, non-contact function, as a graphene nanomaterials-based RF/microwave biosensor, the biosensing scheme still needs to develop the robust biosensing platform integrated with wireless and flexible devices and circuits. In this case, there are also remains challenges how to find effective integration methods and how to secure stability for good performance of RF/microwave devices and systems with graphene nanomaterials. Before this challenge, the optimization of material fabrication and modification techniques to obtain large area, high quality, and uniform arrays will be essential for the highly sensitive and reproducible RF/microwave biosensors. Furthermore, the integration of graphene nanomaterials-based RF/microwave device needs to be optimized to minimize the entire device volume for portable, disposable and POC diagnosis and healthcare in the future.

https://personals.ac.upc.edu/llatser/docs/tacona12.pdf

If I’m allowed just one paragraph of semi-speculation: All living beings are natural antennas, the water molecule and the hydrogen one are antennas of sorts, this is how living beings know stuff before they consciously find out or even develop any sort of conscience. Looks like graphene oxide hyper=capacitates us.

Is this conclusive enough? I can’t give an 100% verdict on this right now, I need to revisit some physics textbooks, I need more inputs from my smartest readers, hurry up, I’m itching to make a follow up to that video!
But if I were vaxxed right now, I’d stay away from powerful EMF sources and powerful anything-that-vibrates that you can hear and feel.

UPDATE NOVEMBER 14, 2021: ENTER GO-NUTS

Stacked layers of GO (clotted?) can have interesting properties. Have in mind the conversion effect described below can work both ways. It says right there “transmit and receive sound”.

Presented at IUS 2015, Taipei, Taiwan
Title: Graphene Oxide Nanofabricated Ultrasonic Transducers (GO-NUTs) Abstract:
Graphene Oxide Nanofabricated Ultrasonic Transducers (GO-NUTs) based on porous electrodes immersed in ionic liquid electrolyte, which use the vibration of the compressible electric double layer to transmit and receive ultrasound with signal level several order of magnitude higher than existing capacitive transducers are introduced. A simple, rapid and scalable method to reduce graphene oxide (GO) by Laser Lightscribe annealing was also demonstrated. The reduced graphene oxide (rGO) for scalable and rapid production was then fabricated to graphene-based ultrasonic transducers which exhibit supercapacitor characteristics. The vibration of ions at the electric double layer (EDL) on the interface of the multi-layer rGO electrode that immersed in liquid electrolyte can simulate the flexible vibrating membrane of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers to match the acoustic impedance of the soft tissue. The amplitude and frequency response to ultrasonic source were measured by oscilloscope and analyzed by MatLab. The capacitance, potential, and frequency response measurement of the GO-NUTs had shown the functionality of the device and suggested it can be used in the high frequency range. The testing result also showed that the reduced graphene oxide had advantages over the material used in traditional piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer. The GO-NUTs could also be further fabricated to interdigitated and array patterns simply by Laser Lightscribe CD/DVD drive and software.
Authors: Ka Hing Cheng, Ching-Hsiang Cheng, Kwong Chun Lo

And, to close the circle in my hypothesis: this is how GO stacks up in water, what if something similar happens in the blood, maybe just in specific conditions that were met before or at the concert?

Graphene nanoparticles tend to form clusters in water, due to unfavorable interfacial energy. In simple words, a graphene nanoparticle ‘prefers’ to be in contact with graphene rather than with water. This is one of the reason why it is so difficult to process graphene at a large scale.

See also : https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5141515 Details of the simulation: molecules of hexabenzocoronene are immersed in water.

The simulation is made using LAMMPS, the rendering using VMD. The temperature 300 K. The structure of the hexabenzocoronene molecules has been downloaded from the ATB repository https://atb.uq.edu.au/.

A script with one single hexabenzocoronene molecule is available here, and easily be adapted to study the multiple particle case: https://github.com/simongravelle

Source: https://lammpstutorials.github.io

bonus

THE GREAT UNTOLD: GMO PEOPLE CANNOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR ANYONE’S SAFETY ANYMORE

To be continued?
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We hardly made it before, but this summer something’s going on, our audience stats show bizarre patterns, we’re severely under estimates and the last savings are gone. We’re not your responsibility, but if you find enough benefits in this work…
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I’ve been a prisoner on the Moroccan slaveship since Covidiocracy started, under the command of King Pfizer I the Destroyer of Morocco and the rule of other people we’ll discuss later. I can’t go far without being molested by the government so I can’t report as a witness to everything, but I still can provide sources and insights you won’t find many places, and believe me, this is a really interesting and telling story.

Morocco is the most jabbed country in Africa, about 3/4 of the population had at least one shot, and I was growing depressed and desperate with these stats and the deafening silence around, as I f-ing love these people and I was hurting being a direct witness to their silent suicide.

I couldn’t understand how can they be so alive inside, individually, but dead as a community.

It was peace because the regular folk here have simple sane natural mentalities and, more so than in many ‘free-minded’ Western societies, they respect each other’s options and allow their neighbor to follow and meet his destiny. Within the framework of Quran. of course, but parallel with the legal framework and propaganda. So whatever was going on was creating big economic problems, but not social tensions and division.

This could’ve been almost a successful vaccination rollout, definitely the best in the region, on the background of an economic and health calamity. But then the rulers of the land decided to ruin their own only achievements lately and made the mistake to push the pedal to the metal with these green-passes, because they’re 200% aboard the Great Reset and all that Davos transhumanist lunacy, especially the king, as vaccines are just the gateway to digital ID’s. And this is the part where other fine gentlemen come in. More on that coming up too.

So when the ‘green’ slave passes hit, what everyone suspected became clear: the whole circus is not about health, their suffering so far was not about mitigating a crisis, quite the opposite.

And now you have what you don’t find everywhere: a more cohesive and clear-minded society, with enough protest experience, loudly standing up to the bullshit, and some frowning bystanders who are completely clueless or confused. No millennial CDC Karens here, that NPC model is not even on the market yet.

Soon, I will reveal how we got here, decades of history, I’ve only scratched the surface before, time to crack it open. Until then…

EXCLUSIVE: HOW BILL GATES AND BANKSTERS GANGED UP TO TAKE MOROCCO. AND NOW ARE RUINING IT. (May 2020 + later updates)

To be continued?
Our work and existence, as media and people, is funded solely by our most generous readers and we want to keep this way.
We hardly made it before, but this summer something’s going on, our audience stats show bizarre patterns, we’re severely under estimates and the last savings are gone. We’re not your responsibility, but if you find enough benefits in this work…
Help SILVIEW.media survive and grow, please donate here, anything helps. Thank you!

! Articles can always be subject of later editing as a way of perfecting them

I dug out for you a big gold nugget from a Johns Hopkins specialist who also inspected Iraq on behalf of UN searching for bioweapons. If you pay close attention, this talk delivers powerful details on GoF beyond the scope of Russia.

Raymond Zilinskas, Monterey Institute of International Studies Speech at the Herrenhausen Symposium “Dual Use Research on Microbes: Biosafety, Biosecurity, Responsibility”, 11.12.2014

A few key-points:

  • You can’t differentiate between bioweapons and vaccine research except by intention, which you can’t really know
  • Bioweapons often target crops and livestock. As in ‘swine-flu’.
  • They experimented with Nipah and Marburg
  • Military oversight as per the Western Military BioTech Complex.
  • They are irresponsibly power-tripping

Raymond A. Zilinskas speaks about the first (1928-1971) and second (called FERMENT, 1972-1992) generation biological warfare programs, relevant elements of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, and Russian weapons based on “genetics”. He provides statistics about the USSR Ministry of Defense biological warfare facilities, the biopreparat biological warfare facilities, and anti-plague institutes. The scientist names examples of FERMENT program’s projects and discusses the program’s legacy in today’s Russia.

The speech has only been recorded in audio:

Zilinskas has worked for the U.S. Office of Technology Assessment, the U.N. Industrial Development Organization, the University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, the School of Hygiene and Public Health, and the Johns Hopkins University. In 1994, he twice served as UNSCOM biological inspector in Iraq. Currently he directs the Chemical and Biological Weapons Nonproliferation Program at James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Monterey Institute of International Studies, California.

To be continued?
Our work and existence, as media and people, is funded solely by our most generous readers and we want to keep this way.
We hardly made it before, but this summer something’s going on, our audience stats show bizarre patterns, we’re severely under estimates and the last savings are gone. We’re not your responsibility, but if you find enough benefits in this work…
Help SILVIEW.media survive and grow, please donate here, anything helps. Thank you!

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ORDER

Wyss is the ninja institute: it’s everywhere and anywhere, but only other ninjas can detect it. Of course it’s deeply involved with Covid and the jabs too. This piece of their work is over a decade old, but you can easily see how it plays out in the 2020’s.

Wyss Institute Develops New Nanodevice Manufacturing Strategy Using Self-Assembling DNA “Building Blocks”

May 30, 2012

Novel technology could enable new tools for delivering drugs directly to disease sites in the body

Researchers at the Wyss Institute have developed a method for building complex nanostructures out of short synthetic strands of DNA. Called single-stranded tiles (SSTs), these interlocking DNA “building blocks,” akin to Legos®, can be programmed to assemble themselves into precisely designed shapes, such as letters and emoticons. Further development of the technology could enable the creation of new nanoscale devices, such as those that deliver drugs directly to disease sites.

The technology, which is described in today’s online issue of Nature, was developed by a research team led by Wyss core faculty member Peng Yin, Ph.D., who is also an Assistant Professor of Systems Biology at Harvard Medical School. Other team members included Wyss Postdoctoral Fellow Bryan Wei, Ph.D., and graduate student Mingjie Dai.

DNA is best known as a keeper of genetic information. But in an emerging field of science known as DNA nanotechnology, it is being explored for use as a material with which to build tiny, programmable structures for diverse applications. To date, most research has focused on the use of a single long biological strand of DNA, which acts as a backbone along which smaller strands bind to its many different segments, to create shapes. This method, called DNA origami, is also being pursued at the Wyss Institute under the leadership of Core Faculty member William Shih, Ph.D. Shih is also an Associate Professor in the Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology at Harvard Medical School and the Department of Cancer Biology at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute.

Examples of self-assembled DNA building blocks
Wyss researchers have built numerals, letters, and a number of other structures using short strands of DNA as building blocks.

In focusing on the use of short strands of synthetic DNA and avoiding the long scaffold strand, Yin’s team developed an alternative building method. Each SST is a single, short strand of DNA. One tile will interlock with another tile, if it has a complementary sequence of DNA. If there are no complementary matches, the blocks do not connect. In this way, a collection of tiles can assemble itself into specific, predetermined shapes through a series of interlocking local connections.

In demonstrating the method, the researchers created just over one hundred different designs, including Chinese characters, numbers, and fonts, using hundreds of tiles for a single structure of 100 nanometers (billionths of a meter) in size. The approach is simple, robust, and versatile.

As synthetically based materials, the SSTs could have some important applications in medicine. SSTs could organize themselves into drug-delivery machines that maintain their structural integrity until they reach specific cell targets, and because they are synthetic, can be made highly biocompatible.

“Use of DNA nanotechnology to create programmable nanodevices is an important focus at the Wyss Institute, because we believe so strongly in its potential to produce a paradigm-shifting approach to development of new diagnostics and therapeutics,” said Wyss Founding Director, Donald Ingber, M.D., Ph.D.

The research was supported by the Office of Naval Research, the National Science Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, and the Wyss Institute at Harvard University.

Source – Wyss Institute

UPDATE DECEMBER 2, 2021

WYSS Inst. presents: Xenobots 3.0: The New Living Robots That Can Reproduce
live webinar on December 1, 2021

Also read:

WE WRITE NEW DNA USING RNA ONLY – STAR SCIENTIST FINANCED BY EPSTEIN, DARPA AND SCHWAB’S WYSS INST.

To find out how Wyss relates to Klaus Schwab, read:

PULITZER-WORTHY! KLAUS SCHWAB’S NAZI ROOTS FINALLY TRACED!

To be continued?
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Yet another manifestation of the Military BioTech Complex I was telling you about, bridging Silicon Valley, Davos and China.
Their words, my research:

Immunization: an entry point for digital identity

ID2020

ID2020 Mar 28, 2018

With World Health Day around the corner on April 7th, we’d like to bring attention to the intersection of global health and digital identity, and specifically the opportunity for immunization rates to scale digital identity amongst the most hard-to-reach children.

Globally, an estimated 95% of children receive at least one dose of some vaccine. This number is staggering — no other public health intervention reaches more children and impacts more families.

Yet, despite this high initial contact rate, only 37% of children in the world’s poorest countries are fully immunized, meaning that they receive their full course of recommended vaccines. Ultimately, many children are left without comprehensive protection and vulnerable to many vaccine-preventable diseases.

Percentage of children reached with the last dose of seven vaccines recommended across all Gavi-supported countries and of three vaccines specific to certain regions (Source: Gavi 2016 Annual Progress Report http://www.gavi.org/progress-report/)

There are several reasons for low coverage rates, including the low quality of population data and reliance on outdated systems to track immunizations, but one critical challenge is the continued use of paper-based systems to record the doses that have been administered and indicate when a child needs to return for boosters. Unfortunately, the paper records kept within a clinic are often difficult to analyze and the immunization cards given to families are prone to loss and inaccuracies. Without a persistent, portable record that can be uniquely linked to the child, it’s often difficult to ascertain the care a child needs.

In November, Dr. Seth Berkley, CEO of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, wrote a piece for Nature that emphasized the pressing need to move to digital systems — specifically those to identify and track those currently missing out — to achieve 100% immunization coverage.

One of the biggest needs is for affordable, secure digital identification systems that can store a child’s medical history, and that can be accessed even in places without reliable electricity. That might seem a tall order, but it is both achievable and necessary.

This message was reinforced at this year’s World Economic Forum meeting in Davos, Switzerland, where Gavi announced digital identity as the focus for its 2018 INFUSE program. INFUSE — Innovation for Uptake, Scale and Equity in Immunization — aims to identify and support innovative solutions that have the potential to modernize global health and immunization delivery. This year, Gavi is focusing its efforts on identifying opportunities for digital identity technologies to help facilitate better targeting, follow-up, and immunization service delivery for the world’s most vulnerable children.

Immunization poses a huge opportunity to scale digital identity — in many developing countries, immunization coverage greatly exceeds birth registration rates. According to best available estimates, upwards of 95% of children globally receive at least one dose of one vaccine (with 86% of children globally receiving the full three doses recommended of the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine, which is commonly used to measure immunization coverage).

When a child receives her first vaccine, she receives a paper child health card. In many developing countries, the most common form of identification is not a birth certificate, but this card. The near ubiquity of these documents presents an enormous opportunity.

Moving from easily lost or damaged paper health cards to an accessible digital form would reduce the burden associated with tracking a child’s vaccines and eliminate redundant or unnecessary paperwork. Digital child health cards can improve coverage rates and vaccine compliance by prompting parents to bring their children in for necessary subsequent doses. For health workers, digital identity technology validates a child’s past vaccines and may streamline analytics and outreach, without adding significant complexity to a health worker’s workflow. And for Gavi and its international partners, digital ID technology provides a basis for a system of verifiable proofs and accurate aggregate data that interoperates with other identity management systems, negating the need for each organization to independently identify beneficiaries.

And because immunization is conducted in infancy, providing children with a digital child health card would give them a unique, portable digital identity early in life. And as children grow, their digital child health card can be used to access secondary services, such as primary school, or ease the process of obtaining alternative credentials. Effectively the child health card becomes the first step in establishing a legal, broadly recognized identity.

In turn, having a persistent and portable health record uniquely tied to the child will help to increase full immunization coverage rates by prompting follow-up and better targeting the most hard to reach children.

In order to enable digital identity at scale, we will need to identify and leverage many entry points. Immunization service delivery presents a tremendous opportunity to provide children with a durable, portable and secure digital identity early in life, enabling access to a wider range of social services, while also improving access to the health interventions all children need and deserve.

We’re proud to partner with Gavi and excited to see the innovations proposed as part of the INFUSE Challenge. To all innovators: the deadline to apply for the program is April 10th, so please get those applications in!

INFUSE 2018 is calling for proven digital technology innovations — adapted to low-resource environments in developing countries — to help identify and register children, especially girls, who are at risk of missing out on life-saving vaccines. 

Launched at Davos in 2016, Innovation for Uptake, Scale and Equity in Immunisation (INFUSE) helps improve vaccine delivery systems by connecting high-impact, proven innovations with the countries that need them most.
It then “infuses” them with capital and expertise to help take them to scale.

GAVI

“Since 2016, ID2020 has advocated for ethical, privacy-protecting approaches to digital ID.

For the one in seven people globally who lacks a means to prove their identity, digital ID offers access to vital social services and enables them to exercise their rights as citizens and voters and participate in the modern economy. But doing digital ID right means protecting civil liberties and putting control over personal data back where it belongs…in the hands of the individual.

Every day, we rely on a variety of forms of identification to go about our lives: our driver’s license, passport, work badge and building access cards, debit and credit cards, transit passes, and more.

But technology is evolving at a blinding pace and many of the transactions that require identification are today being conducted digitally. From e-passports to digital wallets, online banking to social media accounts, these new forms of digital ID allow us to travel, conduct business, access financial and health records, stay connected, and much more.

While the move to digital ID has had many positive effects, it has been accompanied by countless challenges and setbacks, including large-scale data breaches affecting millions of people. Most of the current tools are archaic, insecure, lack appropriate privacy protections and commoditize our data. But that’s about to change and ID2020 is leading the charge.

We are businesses, nonprofits, governments and individuals…working in collaboration to ensure that the future of digital identity is, indeed, #goodID.” – ID2020.org

Gavi and Zenysis Technologies to bring data and artificial intelligence to immunisation programmes

The partnership supported by Asia’s largest internet services company Tencent will help developing countries reach more children with life-saving vaccines

Geneva, 12 March 2019 – Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance and Zenysis Technologies, a Silicon Valley startup, have established a new strategic partnership that will help low-income countries harness the power of big data and artificial intelligence to improve childhood vaccination programs around the world.

Zenysis Technologies was identified by Gavi, through the INFUSE (Innovation for Uptake, Scale and Equity in Immunisation) yearly call for innovation. INFUSE aims to identify proven solutions which, when brought to scale, have the greatest potential to modernise global health and immunisation delivery.

What the team at Zenysis has built and accomplished to date is in a class of its own. 

David Wallerstein, Tencent’s Chief Exploration Officer

A two-year partnership will provide countries with the Zenysis’ software platform, analytical training and IT skills development. Countries will use the platform’s capabilities to integrate data from their fragmented information systems and help decision-makers see where children are not receiving vaccines. Advanced analytics will then help countries decide how to target their limited resources for maximum impact.

“Weak immunisation data leads to poor planning, often meaning that children, whether they live in urban slums or remote rural outposts, miss out on lifesaving vaccines. Digital transformation of immunisation data and analytics is key to making sure that all children are protected from vaccine-preventable diseases,” said Gavi CEO Dr Seth Berkley. “Our partnership with Zenysis has the potential to increase efficiency and reduce costs for developing countries but, most importantly, it could save lives.”

Since its inception three years ago, Zenysis has expanded into ten countries that now use its software to improve health programs serving over one billion people. The company’s software has been used to optimise nationwide vaccination campaigns allowing for reinvestment in other lifesaving health programs.

“Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance has helped over 70 countries vaccinate more than 700 million children in low income countries,” said Zenysis CEO, Jonathan Stambolis. “However, weak and fragmented information systems at the country level mean that millions of the world’s most vulnerable children have been left behind. We have assembled one of the strongest software engineering teams in Silicon Valley to build the software countries need to address this urgent global health challenge and our partnership with Gavi and Tencent will ensure that technology benefits the countries that need it most.”

We have assembled one of the strongest software engineering teams in Silicon Valley to build the software countries need to address this urgent global health challenge… 

Jonathan Stambolis, Zenysis CEO

The company expects to reach at least fifteen more countries in 2019. This will include Pakistan, where Zenysis will be working with government authorities and Gavi to improve vaccination coverage and equity as well as to accelerate the country’s progress towards a polio-free future. The project has the backing of one of Zenysis’ investors, internet services giant Tencent Holdings, Asia’s largest company. Tencent investment of US$ 4.5 million will be matched by the Gavi Matching Fund.

“We are very excited about the potential for artificial intelligence to transform child health on a global scale”, said David Wallerstein, Tencent’s Chief Exploration Officer.  “I look at hundreds of the fastest-growing startups every year. What the team at Zenysis has built and accomplished to date is in a class of its own. The company’s software will help governments become more effective and targeted at every step of the vaccination challenge, and move with the urgency and speed required to realise Gavi’s vision of a world free of vaccine-preventable illnesses”.

The official Memorandum of Understanding establishing this landmark partnership between Gavi and Zenysis Technologies was signed by Gavi’s CEO Dr Seth Berkley and the Zenysis CEO Jonathan Stambolis in Abu Dhabi during the Gavi Mid-Term Review high-level conference.

I think we’re done here.
But I’ll update this if anything worth noting comes along.

UPDATE DECEMBER 5, 2021

RT

CNN

To be continued?
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We hardly made it before, but this summer something’s going on, our audience stats show bizarre patterns, we’re severely under estimates and the last savings are gone. We’re not your responsibility, but if you find enough benefits in this work…
Help SILVIEW.media survive and grow, please donate here, anything helps. Thank you!

! Articles can always be subject of later editing as a way of perfecting them

ORDER